A formal call for assembly of American Union Lodge 1779 was issued on February 10, as follows:
State of Connecticut, via. Reading.
On the application of a number of Free and Accepted Masons to the Members of the American Union Lodge held by Authority under the Rt. Worshipful John Rowe, Esq., Grand Master of All Masons in North America where no special Grand Master is appointed, requesting that the said American Union Lodge may be convened for the purpose of reestablishing the Ancient Craft in the same. Agreeable to which a Summons was issued desiring the Members of the American Union Lodge to meet at Widow Sanford's near Reading Old Meeting House on Monday the 15th inst. Feb 'y. at 4 o'clock of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons to attend at 5 o'clock P. M.
By Jona. Heart, Secy. Am. U. Lodge. Feb. 10th A. M. 5779.
"Memoranda." The particular situation of the Army making it necessary that the officers of the Army join immediately, the Brethren did not meet, and the necessity of attending to the business of war under the dispersed situation, those who were formerly Members, such as were still living and in the Army, belonging to the different Regiments and Brigades, made it impracticable to carry on the Grand Design until the present winter, when the Army being collected in winter quarters, at the request of the Brethren, it was concluded to issue a summons to call the members together for the purpose of reestablishing the Ancient Craft in the American Union Lodge. Agreeable to which a summons was issued desiring the Brethren of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, to meet at the Widow Sanford's, near Reading Meeting House, on Monday the 15th of February, at 5 o'clock.
The location of Reading it should be specified, is in Connecticut. No town with name thus spelled is today listed in that State, but there is a town of Redding in Fairfield County in the south-eastern part of the State, near Danbury, and not far from the New York line. These two forms of spelling without doubt refer to the same place. It is interesting to note in this connection, that in the 1859 report of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, the name is spelled Reading, the same as recorded in the report of the Secretary.
The session of February 15, 1779, on the resumption of work, may appropriately be recorded here, allowing for some freedom of revision of the Secretary's report.
Agreeable to summons the Members of American Union Lodge and other Brethren of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons met, Brother Heart in the Chair, Brother Hoit, Sr. Warden, and Will Judd, Member. Visitors were Marshall, Red-field, Brown, Sherman and Coleman.
The Lodge being opened proceeded to business, when Brother Elisha Marshall was proposed to become a Member of this Lodge. Balloted for and accepted. Similar action was taken relative to Isaac Sherman and William Redfield.
The Members of the Lodge proceeded to elect a Master to fill the chair in the place of Worshipful Joel Clark, deceased, when the Honorable Brother Samuel Holden Parsons was elected. They then proceeded to choose a Secretary, when Brother William Judd was elected.
Jona. Heart, Secretary.
As the Right Worshipful Master was absent and not likely to return soon, or attend, the Brethren Members thought proper to dispense with the Ancient Regulations.
The Master being present at the election of officers, they thereupon proceeded to the choice of a Senior Warden, when Brother Heart was elected. The Brethren then elected Elisha Marshall, Junior Warden; Isaac Sherman, Treasurer, and Charles Peck, Tyler.
The new Officers (the Right Worshipful Master
excepted, he being absent) having taken their seats, the Brethren
proceeded to consideration of the By-Laws. By unanimous consent,
it was agreed that the same continue in full force, with the following
proviso: "that the fees for admission of Members be Thirty
Dollars,* Passing be six dollars, and Raising a Brother to Superior
Degrees be seven dollars and one-half, and all other perquisites,
&c. so far as relates to gentlemen of the Army be raised three
fold, and on all other cases the fees and perquisites be at the
discretion of the majority of the Brethren Members in Lodge assembled.
That the Tyler's
fees for the admission of new Members, Passing or Raising a Brother, be three dollars exclusive of all other fees."
The Entered Apprentice Lodge being closed, a Fellow Craft Lodge opened, when Brother Judd was proposed to be Passed to a Fellow Craft. The ballot was taken and carried in the affirmative.
The Fellow Craft Lodge being closed an Entered Apprentice Lodge was again opened.
Lieut. Col. Thomas Grosvenor, Henry Champion and Simeon Belding, Division Quarter-Master, were proposed by Brother Heart and the deposit paid, amounting in the whole to:
10, 16/ 0p.
0, 6/ 0p. Paid by one visiting brother.
5, 8/ 0p. Four visiting Brothers made Members.
16, 10/ 0p.
Expense of evening. Tyler's bill 6, 0 / 0 p.
Lodge adjourned to Monday the 17th inst. at 5 o'clock P. M., then to meet at this place.
William Judd, Secretary.
* The word dollar was introduced to America from Bohemia, and represents a standard for weight and purity. Prior to the Revolutionary War the Spanish dollar had become the unit of trade in America. In 1792 Congress legalized this fact, establishing the dollar as the unit of American currency. (Encyclopedia Americana, 1922, IX, p. 236.)
In connection with the session of the 15th it is interesting to note several early Masonic customs that have long since passed out. These include allowing visitors to sit in Lodge, and while present, electing them to membership, and initiating. While Brother Heart acted as Worshipful Master, he also gave partial time to serve as Secretary. In fact, according to the records, only three members of the Lodge were present to open on Feb.15, after which Messrs. Marshall, Sherman and Redfield, listed as visitors, were "balloted for and accepted." A special provision was made in the By-Laws for giving fees to the Tyler for service, which to say the least were generous ones.
A spurious Lodge first received attention in these minutes, when in the February 17 session, Simeon Belding, who was made an Entered Apprentice at this meeting, had a rebate on his fee, because "having before been imposed upon by a spurious Lodge, and paid the fee without being duly made," one half his fee' being remitted.
A revision of the By-Laws in 1779, was provided for by appointment at the February 24th meeting of Brothers Elisha Marshall, S. W. and Jonathan Heart, M. as a committee to amend and report upon them at the next meeting, for the approbation of the Lodge. Sessions were held on March 3 and 8th, relative in the main to electing and initiating members. At a session held on March 10 at Widow Sanford's, the Lodge opened in the Entered Apprentice degree, and proceeded to business, by hearing the report of the Committee "for inspecting and amending the by-laws of this Lodge." They reported the following articles as Rules and By-Laws for the government of the American Union Lodge.
In view of the similarity of these Rules and By-Laws with those first adopted in 1776, the Historian is here simply indicating the points of revision in the 1779 edition.
Article 1. Instead of "here appear" insert hereafter Following Amajority" place vote. After "casting vote," insert in this and in. After the final word "Lodge," insert except in cases hereafter mentioned.
Article 2. That this Lodge shall be held from time to at such place as by adjournment, it shall be ordered, of which the members are desired to take particular notice and attend punctually.
Article 3. The word "vouched" is changed to After "if he is accepted," leave out "and duly made." After Aaccepted "insert it. Following Ashall be returned," insert and.
Article 4. After the end of this rule, insert: but this rule may be dispensed at discretion of the Lodge.
Article 5. After "recorded" insert minutes in place of Lodge books. Leave out "Lodge night" and insert Entered Apprentice. Instead to read "again appear," change to still appears. In place of one negative "shall again appear," insert shall still appear. Instead of and Aif one negative shall," insert if a negative. Before the word "foregoing" article, insert immediate.
Article 6. Omit the five final words and insert be considered as part.
Article 7. Substitute the following:
A Lodge of Emergency may be called for the making of any Brothers, who are under necessity of leaving this Province, the expenses of the night to be paid by the Brother or Brothers made.
Article 8. Unchanged.
Article 9. Substitute the following:
Every member shall pay into the hands of the Secretary one shilling, equal to one-sixth of a dollar, for each night's attendance, to be paid quarterly.
Article 10. Substitute the following:
Every brother visiting this Lodge shall pay one shilling each night he visits, except the first night, when he shall be excused.
Article 11. After the third word, instead of "desiring," substitute who shall desire. After the word "ballot," substitute the following, (the same as a candidate) and if accepted shall pay nine shillings.
Article 12. Substitute the following:
No person who may have clandestinely obtained any part or parts of the secrets of Masonry shall be suffered to visit this Lodge until he has made due submission and gone through the necessary forms, in which case he shall pay for making, at the discretion of the Lodge, not exceeding the usual fees.
Article 13. After the word "Metropolis," insert or city where there. After "restrictions" insert in the immediate foregoing article in place of "in the institution."
Article 14. Instead of a comma place a period after "silence." Omit "and" that follows and begin "no" with capital N. For the word "rebuke" substitute reprimand. After "first offense," substitute the following: and if he shall remain contumaciously obstinate shall be expelled from the Lodge.
Article 15. For "member" substitute
Article 16. In place of "the members are," substitute every member is.
Article 17. Substitute the following:
That every member of the Lodge shall endeavor to keep in mind what passes in Lodge, that when the Master shall examine them on the Mysteries of the Craft he may not be under necessity of answering for them.
Article 18. Insert first between "the Lodge." After Baptist, substitute the following: and the first Lodge night preceding that of St. John the Evangelist.
Article 19. In place of "records" insert accounts; after "of," insert all; substitute the for "this."
Article 20. After "called upon, "insert by the Master and Wardens.
Article 21. Substitute permission for "leave."
Article 22. Substitute the following:
The outside Tyler shall be allowed one shilling and six pence for each night's attendance, also three shillings more for each new made, Passed or Raised Brother, which shall be paid them exclusive of the premiums paid to the Lodge; the inside Tyler shall be excused for paying quarterages.
Article 23. Instead of "Secrets or Transactions," read secret Transactions. After "thereof" in last sentence, substitute shall be expelled the Lodge, never to be readmitted.
Article 24. After "closed," substitute and shall be guilty of or accessory to any conduct by which the Craft shall be subjected to aspersions or the censure of the world, of which the Lodge shall be judge. After "second offense," substitute he shall be expelled by the Lodge.
Article 25. After "fine," insert thereby or, omitting Alaid." In place of "excluded" insert expelled.
Article 26. Substitute the following:
That every Brother (being a member of this Lodge) who shall be passed a Fellow Craft, shall pay twelve shillings and fifteen for being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason; and that any Brother (not a member) shall, for being passed, pay twenty-four shillings, and thirty-six for being raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason.
Article 27. Substitute the following:
No visiting Brother shall be allowed to speak in matters unless he be desired by the Master to give his opinion.
Article 28. Whereas, many matters may come
before this Lodge not particularly provided for in the foregoing
by-laws, the same shall be submitted to the determination of the
Lodge by a majority of votes; the Lodge shall reserve to themselves
to alter, amend, diminish or augment the aforesaid by4aws, as
shall appear necessary by the majority of the members in Lodge
And, whereas, from the present depreciation of our money, it will be impossible to maintain the dignity of the Lodge by the premiums arising from the by-laws, it is ordered by a unanimous vote of this Lodge, that the fees for a new made Brother be thirty dollars; Passing a Bother (being a member) six dollars; and Raising, seven dollars and one half; and all other perquisites, so far as, relates to the gentlemen of the army, be raised three fold to what is prescribed in the by-laws; and in all other cases, that the fees and perquisites be at the of the discretion of the majority of the members in Lodge assembled, except the fees of the outside Tyler, which for
making, passing and raising shall be six fold, to be paid agreeably to the 22d Article of the by-laws.
Jonathan Heart Robert Warner
Elihu Marshall John R. Watrous
William Redfield Richard Sill
Oliver Lawrence Samuel Richards
Hezekiah Holdridge William Higgins
William Richards John Simpson
Albergence Waldo Reuben Pride
William Little Timothy Hosmer
Ehas Stillwill John Hobart
Jabez Clark Jabez Parsons
David Judson Josiah Lacey
William Judd Elijah Chapman
John Brooks Noah Coleman
Samuel Finley Gamaliel Bradford
Timothy Whiting Asa Worthington
Rufus Putnam S. H. Barker
Samuel Craig John Sherman
W. Wilson John Hughes
Jonathan Brown Elisha Skinner
Eben Gray Jona. G. Graham
Willis Clift Giles Curtiss
Prentice Hosmer Stephen Betts
David F. Sill Henry Ten Eyck
Simeon Belding Peleg Heath
Thomas Grosvenor Thomas Byles
These twenty-eight articles, signed by fifty-one persons, were separately presented to the Lodge, upon which it was unanimously agreed and voted that they be approved and adopted, supplanting any by-laws heretofore enacted.
Application of Article 24 as relates to conduct, is made a matter of record in the session of March 17, on which occasion Capt. Edward Archibald of the Train of Artillery, was balloted for and accepted. This statement is the first item of business of the Lodge reported for that date. A concluding paragraph before closing in the report of this same date, is as follows:
ACapt. Archibald having appeared at Lodge in a situation unbecoming the character of a Mason, the Lodge unanimously resolved and desired that Bro. Brown inform him that he is not to attend this Lodge, and that he is to be considered and treated in the same manner as though never made a Mason."
No specific charge is made, but unquestionably Capt. Archibald must have been guilty of a very serious misdemeanor, which brought a treatment that may be regarded as drastic at that time.
The social side to Freemasonry was on several occasions emphasized by the Lodge. At the meeting on March 22, "Some particular business requiring it, it was voted that an Entered Apprentice Lodge be held on Thursday the 25th day of March, at 2 o'clock P. M., and that Bros. Belding, Sill and Little prepare a dinner and invite the Brethren of the ancient society, who are not members of this Lodge, to dine with us. That Bro. Redfield wait on the Hon. Bro. Putnam with the desire of the Lodge to attend; that Mrs. Sanford, her daughter and nice, Mrs. Marshall and Heart, be also invited to dine with us on Thursday." The Bro. Putnam referred to here, was presumably Rufus Putnam, not at this time a Mason, but a distinguished pioneer, citizen and soldier, a friend of Gen. George Washington, and a cousin of Israel Putnam. Later in July Rufus Putnam began an important career in American Union Lodge.
A Lodge of Emergency" was held on March 25, on which occasion eleven members were present, with Brother Heart, W. M. in the East, and one visitor recorded present. Mr. Jabez Clark, State Commissary; Lieut. Judson, of the Third Connecticut Battalion; and Lieut. Jabez Parsons, of the Second Connecticut Battalion, heretofore proposed to be Masons, were separately balloted for and accepted, and duly made Entered Apprentices. The Lodge then closed for a space.
Procession began at half past four in the following order:
1. Bro. Whitney to clear the way.
2. The Wardens with their wands.
3. The youngest Brother, with the Bag.
4. Brethren by Juniority.
5. The Worshipful Master, with the Treasurer on his right hand, supporting the Sword of Justice, and the Secretary on his left hand, supporting the Bible, Square and Compasses.
6. Music, playing the Entered Apprentice March advanced twenty yards in front, and proceeded to Esq. Hawleys, where Bro. Little delivered a few sentiments on Friendship, the Rev. Dr. Evans and a number of gentlemen and ladies being present.
After dinner the following songs and toasts were given, interspersed with music, for the entertainment of the company.
Songs Toasts Music
Hail America General Washington Grand March By Bro. Warner
Montgomery The Memory of Warren,
By Bro. Waldo Montgomery Wooster Dead March
Lament Relief of Widows
By Bro. Marshall and Orphans Country Jig
Mason's Daughter Ladies of America Mason's Daughter
By Bro. Redfield
On, On my dear
Brethren Union, Harmony
By Bro. Marshall and Peace
Huntsmen Social Enjoyment
By Bro. Warner
My Dog and Gun Contentment
By Bro. Waldo
It is of special interest to note the occasion of a toast in honor of General Washington. This Brother J. Hugo Tatsch states is "what is believed to be the first toast in honor of Washington in a Masonic connection."*
The festivities were concluded with a speech
by Bro. Waldo. At half past 7 o'clock the procession began in
returning to the Lodge room, in reverse order from the afternoon
procession, the music playing "The Mason's Daughter."
* The Facts about George Washington as a Freemason, New York, 1931, p.54.
The Master having taken his seat, the Lodge opened, after which Worshipful Brother Heart returned his thanks to the officers and Brethren for their faithful attendance in labor, and in transacting the business of the day with the greatest decorum and harmony. The Lodge gave expression in formal order, as follows:
Voted That the Lodge have a grateful sense of the honor paid them by the Rev. Dr. Evans and other gentlemen and ladies in attending the exercises of the day.
Voted That the thanks of the Lodge be presented to Bros. Little and Waldo for the honor conferred on the Lodge by their addresses.
Preparations were made for a second feast,
when at a session of the Lodge held on March 31, with nine members
and one visitor present, action was taken preparatory to another
feast, to take place on April 7. It was AVoted, that Brothers
Little, Belding and Sill, are heretofore voted, proceed in preparing
a feast on Wednesday the 7th of April; that Bro. Redfield wait
on Bro. Putnam and his two Aides-de-Camp with the desire of this
Body that they dine with us; that Bro. Heart wait on the Rev.
Dr. Evans with the desire of the Lodge that he dine with us, and
also that he favor the assembly with a discourse on such subject
as he shall think proper. Also voted, that
the Rev. Mr. Bartlett, his wife, Mrs. Sanford, her daughter and niece, Esq. Hawley, his wife and daughter, the widow Fairchild, widow Sanford, Mrs. Marshall, Mrs. Heart, Miss Curtis and Col. Meigs be invited to dine with us; that Bro. Belding present them with notice in the name of the Lodge. Voted, that dinner be served at 2 o=clock.
The record of the feast of April 7, 1779,
is as follows:
The Lodge convened at 10 a. m. as an Entered Apprentice Lodge, per adjournment, "when Lient. Samuel Richards, Paymaster to the Third Connecticut Battalion, having been proposed, balloted for and accepted to be made a Mason, was made an Entered Apprentice." Gen. Samuel H. Parsons on this occasion, having been elected Feb. 15, was Worshipful Master and occupied his position in the East and in the procession.
* A footnote indicates this to be Gen. Israel Putnam, a cousin of Rufus.
It having been voted to dine at three o'clock,
at half past one the procession began, as follows:
1. Br. Whitney, Outside Tyler.
2. The Wardens, with White Rods.
3. The Youngest Brother with the Bag.
4. The Brethren, by Juniority.
5. The W. Master, with his Rod; the Treasurer on his right hand, supporting the Sword of Justice; the Secretary on his left, supporting the Bible, Square and Compasses.
6. Bro. Peck, the Inside Tyler.
Music advanced, playing the "Entered Apprentice March."
The W. Master and Brethren having seated themselves, together with a number of respectable inhabitants, gentlemen and ladies, the Rev. Dr. Evans delivered a discourse suitable to the occasion.
After dinner the W. Master called on Bro. Munson and others for songs and sentiments, when the company were favored with the following, each song and toast being enlivened with appropriate music:
Song by Br. Munson B Watery Gods.
Toast B Health of Congress.
Music B Grenadier's March
Song by Br. Munson B Elegy on General Wolfe.
Toast B Warren, Montgomery and Wooster.
Music B Dead March
Mason's Song by Br. Redfield.
Toast B The Good and Just.
Music B Prince Eugene
Song by Br. Munson B Cohn and Phoebe.
Toast B The Ladies of America.
Music B Country Jig
Toast B America.
Song on Masonry by Br. Marshall
Toast B Arts and Sciences.
Music B Splendor of the Morning.
Song by Bros. Munson and Marshall B The Tempest, with Jack the Seaman, to conclude.
At six o'clock the procession returned to the Lodge room, and the Lodge being open, it was Voted, That the thanks of this Lodge be presented in writing to the Rev. Dr. Evans, for his polite address and sentiments delivered this' day, and that Bro. Waldo wait on him with the same; also that Bro. Waldo present our thanks to the Rev. Mr. Bartlett, and to the other gentle men and ladies who favored the Lodge with their company at dinner.
Voted, That Bros. Whitney and Peck act as inside and outside Tylers, and share equally the profits of tyling this Lodge. Bro. R. E. Toler of the History Committee calls attention to the fact that this meeting was held nine years to the day, before the first permanent settlement in Ohio was made at Marietta on April 7, 1788. Since the Lodge later found a permanent home at Marietta, and since it is No. 1 on the rolls of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, this is a coincidence worthy of historical note.
A Lodge of Emergency as it was termed, was an interesting feature of this time of war. Men were elected, initiated, passed and raised under very abnormal conditions, such as seem quite impossible otherwise. For example, on April 15, in an "Entered Apprentice Lodge of Emergency, Bro. Sill proposed that the Rev. Dr. T. E. Evans be made a Mason; and, as he was under the necessity of soon departing from this place, and his character was so universally well known by all the Brethren, he was balloted for and accepted, and it was voted that an emergent meeting be held tomorrow evening for the purpose of making him.@
April 16th 1779, 5 o'clock P. M.
Entered Apprentice Lodge of Emergency. Present Bro. Heart, as W. M.; other officers and members. Rev. Dr. T Evans, who was proposed last night, and balloted for and accepted, was received and made an Entered Apprentice.
Lieuts. John Sherman and Reuben Pride were proposed to be made Masons, by Bros. Grosvenor and Richards.
Closed without date.
April 21, 1779, at 3 o'clock P. M., the Rev. Bro. Evans was passed a Fellow Craft, and the same evening he was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason, as were also Bros. Richards and Stillwill, after having been sep arately balloted for and accepted. Lieut.. Reuben Pride was made an Entered Apprentice on April 28, and passed and raised on May 7.
An interesting case of Masonic progress is recorded on May 7 in which "Bro. Andrew Fitch, a Captain in the Fourth Connecticut Battalion, having been made an Entered Apprentice in a regular Lodge at New Haven, at a distance from that part of the Army where the American Union Lodge was held, and at a place where his character was well known, he being there on command, was proposed to be made a Fellow Craft in this Lodge; and having been balloted for and accepted, he was accordingly passed to the degree of Fellow Craft."
"At an Emergent Masters' Lodge held on the same evening, Bro. Andrew Fitch was proposed to be raised; and, having been balloted for and accepted, he was accordingly raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason. Lodge closed without date."
A removal of American Union Lodge from Connecticut to New York, occurred at some period between May 8 and June 23, 1779, for according to the records of the Secretary, "the operations of the Army now requiring the Connecticut Line to remove their quarters, the subsequent meetings of this Lodge were held in the States of New York and New Jersey."
All of the Meetings held in Connecticut in 1779, between February 15 and May 7, were held at Widow Sanford's near Reading Old Meeting House, for so the Secretary records in his minutes. Meetings were held on Feb.15, 17, 24, March 3, 8, 10, 13, 17, 22, 25, 31, April 7, 15, 16, 21, 28, May 3 and 7, a total of 18 days. In some instances Lodge was opened and closed in different degrees the same day, on which occasion the Secretary recorded the officers, members and visitors present at each degree session. For example a Fellow Craft Lodge convened at 3 o'clock on May 7; a Master's Lodge at 5 o'clock; a Fellow Craft again at 7 o'clock; and finally a Master Mason Lodge at 8 o'clock, all for the same day.
The fees of American Union Lodge seem rather
complicated to present day members of the Craft, and involve much
detail, as the records given herewith will show. These are quoted
from the rules and regulations as adopted first in 1776, and later
as revised in 1779. In view of the various conditions covered,
the fees of each year will be presented separately, although in
form of the article.
Fees of 1776
Article 3. Each Brother proposing a candidate shall deposit four dollars as advance towards his making. (Entered Apprentice.)
Article 6. Every Brother made shall pay
ten dollars for his making, of which the deposit money shall be
Article 9. Every member shall pay one shilling and six-pence each night he attends.
Article 10. Any Brother visiting this Lodge shall pay two shillings each night he visits.
Article 11. Any visiting Brother desiring to become a member, if admitted shall pay nine shillings.
Article 14. Any Brother interrupting the harmony of the Lodge is to receive a severe rebuke from the Master for the first offense, shall pay two shillings for the second, and for the third shall be excluded from the Lodge.
Article 22. The outside Tyler shall be allowed six shillings for every evening attendance, and also three more for each new made Brother. The inside Tyler is excused from paying Quarterage.
Article 24. Any Brother who shall in Lodge room, after closing, be guilty of quarreling, fighting, cursing, swearing, abusive or approbious language, so that the Craft may be liable to the aspersions or censure of work, shall for the first offense be severely reprimanded by the Master; for the second be fined three shillings; for the third excluded from the Lodge.
Article 27. Any Brother raised in this
Lodge and a member shall pay fifteen shillings; and a
Brother desiring to be raised shall pay twelve shillings; and any Brother not a member who desired to be raised shall pay twenty shillings, and if passed only fifteen shillings.
Article 25. Any Brother who refuses to
pay atove fines, and disputes payment, shall be
excluded from the Lodge.
Fees of 1779
Article 4. Member proposing candidate deposit four dollars as an advance toward his making.
Article 6. Every Brother pay ten dollars for his making, the deposit money a part.
Article 9. Every member pay Secretary one shilling, equal one-sixth dollar, for each night of attendance, to be paid quarterly.
Article 10. Every 'Brother visiting this Lodge shall pay one shilling each night he visits except the first.
Article 11. A Brother accepted on ballot, pays nine shillings.
Article 22. Outside Tyler allowed one shilling and six pence for each night attendance. Also three shillings more for each new made, passed or raised Brother. Inside Tyler is excused from Quarterages.
Article 26. Every Brother passed a Fellow Craft shall pay twelve shillings, and fifteen for being made a Master Mason. Any Brother (not a member) shall, for being passed pay twenty-four shillings, and thirty-six for being made Master Mason.
Article 28. Whereas from present depreciation of our money it is ordered by unanimous vote that the fees for a New made Brother be thirty dollars, passing (being a member) six dollars, and raising seven and one-half dollars. "And all other perquisites, so far as relates to the gentlemen of the Army, be raised three fold to what is prescribed in the by-laws; and in all other cases, that the fees and perquisites be at the discretion of the majority of the members in Lodge assembled, except the fees of the outside Tyler, which for making, passing and raising shall be six fold, to be paid agreeably to the 22d article of the by-laws.
These 1779 articles were signed by the 51 members of the Lodge. As one goes over the records of the Secretary, and notes the administration of the rules on fees, he will be puzzled no doubt in some instances as to the extent of the charges.
Visits of enilnent Masons to American Union Lodge, especially Washington and LaFayette, have been repeatedly credited in public prints. It must be agreed that the records of the Secretary would specify the presence of any notable Masons as visitors to the Lodge. A careful study of the records, however, furnishes certain specific information of interest.
General George Washington was made a Mason in Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg, Virginia, receiving the degree of Master Mason on August 4, 1753. Following this date, "for nearly twenty-five years," writes Bro. John J. Lanier*, "the incidents of Washington=s early Masonic life are lost in obscurity. There is a tradition that he may have attended the 'Lodge of Social and Military Virtues' No. 227, on the register of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, during a visit to Philadelphia, New York and Boston~n the winter of 1756, and doubtless he attended other lodges, but the Brethren of that early period were often remiss in the preservation of their records and the facts are not known." The records of American Union Lodge, however, note two specific instances in which General Washington attended Lodge affairs, once at an outdoor social meeting, and again at a regular meeting, on which occasion he sat as a visitor. These two instances are notable enough to justify repeating the records of the Secretary in this history.
The first instances recorded of General
Washington at American Union Lodge, occurred at a Festival in
honor of St. John the Baptist on June 24, 1779, at Nelson's
* Washington the Great American Mason, New York, 1922, p.25.
Point, near West Point, New York. Following is an exact quotation from the records of the Secretary bearing on this Festival.
Festival of St. John the Baptist
State of New York
Nelson's Point, June 24, 1779
The American Union Lodge held by authority under the Most Worshipful John Rowe, Esq., Grand Master of all Masons in North America where no special Grand Master is appointed, confirmed by the Most Worshipful Peter Middleton, M.D., Provincial Deputy Grand Master for the Province of New York, by the name of Military Union Lodge.
8 o'clock A. M. Officers present-Brs. Parsons, W. M.; Heart, S. W.; Redfield, J. W.; Champion, Treasurer; Grosvenor, Secretary; Whitney, Tyler. Members present B Brothers: Little, Grey, Clark, Pride, Watrous, Stillwill, Higgins, Warner, Wyllys, Clift, Fitch, Brown, Holdridge, Lawrence, Richards, Humphreys, Judd, Sill, Judson. Visitors-Brothers: Munson, Perkins, Coleman, Hubbard, Woodward.
Lodge opened and proceeded to the business
of the day, viz : to elect officers for the half year ensuing,
agreeable to Constitution, when the following Brethren were unanimously
chosen: viz: Jonathan Heart, W. Master; Samuel H. Parsons, S.
Warden; Samuel Wyllys, Jun. Warden; Simeon Belding, Treasurer;
Thomas Grosvenor, Secretary; William Redfield and William Little,
Stewards; Daniel Whitney, Tyler.
The officers elect having taken their seats, and finished the partial business of the day, Lodge was closed till 10 o'clock A. M., then to meet on West Point, in order to celebrate the Festival of St. John.
The Brethren then proceeded to West Point, where being joined by a number of Brothers from the Brigades on West Point and Constitution Island, the whole proceeded from General Patterson's Quarters to the Red House in the following order:
1. Bro. Whitney, to clear the way.
2. The Band of Music with drums and fifes.
3. The Wardens.
4. The youngest Brother, with the bag.
5. Brethren by Juniority.
6. The Rev. Drs. Smith, Avery and Hitchcock.
7. The Master of the Lodge, with the Treasurer on his right, supporting the Sword of Justice, and the Secretary on his left, supporting the Bible, Square and Compasses.
8. Bro. Binns. to close, with Brs. Lorraine and Disborough on the flanks opposite the center.
Being arrived at the Red House, Lodge was
opened in ample form. Officers present B Brs. Heart, W. M.; Parsons,
S. Warden; Wyllys, J. Warden; Champion, Treasurer; Grosvenor,
Secretary; Redfield and White, Stewards; Whitney, Binns, Lorraine
and Disborough, Tylers.
Members present-Brs. Hull, Holdridge, Richards, Humphreys, Brown, Lawrence, Gray, Clift, Sill, Warner, Judson, Judd, Clark, Pride, Stillwill, Watrous, Higgins, Fitch.
Visitors, Masters B Brs. Nixon, Greaton, Loring, Smith, Williams, Watson, Cumpton, Tisdale, Davis, Burnham, Mainard, Smith, Meecham, Whitwell, Shays, Rouse, Blake, Event, Holland, A. Holden, J. Holden, Chambers, Frost, Pike, Holbrook, Patterson, Tupper, Patten, Murphy, Clark, Moore, Winches, Porter, Page, Green-leaf, Jones, Francis, Lunt, Goodrich, Burly, Foot, Hitchcock, Welch, Clough, Dolleyon, Stewart, King, Williams, Davidson, Storer, Lacy, Woodward.
Visitors, Fellow Crafts B Brs. Nixon, Flowers, Snow, Annend, Thompson, Jennison, Barnes, Francis, Hart.
Visitors, Apprentices B Brs. Fernald, Wingates, Bailey, Bannister, Bradford, Morton, Forcy, Alden, Hastings, Mellens, Thomas, Farley, Haskell, Dixen, Ferrol, Tucker.
After the usual ceremonies, the Lodge retired to a bower in front of the house, where being joined by His Excellency General Washington and family, an address was delivered to the Brethren and a number of gentlemen collected on the occasion, by the Rev. Dr. Hitchcock, followed by an address to the Brethren in particular, by Bro. Hull. After dinner the following toasts were drunk, and closed with music, also the songs annexed to them, viz:
Toasts B Congress; Friendly Powers of Europe; Warren Montgomery, Wooster; Females of America; Arts Seiences.
Music B Grenadier 's March; Prince Eugene's March; Dead March; Rural Felicity; Country Jig.
Songs B Elegy on Gen. Wolfe, by Bros. Munson; The Mason=s Daughter, by Bro. Page; The Virtuous Science, by Bro. Warner.
A number of other toasts and songs were given by different Brethren.
His Excellency Bro. Washington, having returned to the barge attended by the Wardens and Secretary of the Lodge, amidst a crowd of Brethren, the music playing AGod Save America." His departure was announced by three cheers from the shore, answered by three from the barge, the music beating the "Grenadier 's March."
The Brethren then returned to Gen. Patterson's Quarters, in the reversed order of that in which the first procession was made, when the Master with his Wardens and Secretary closed the Lodge.
Cr. by club of 107 Brethren . . ,409-12-0
Expenses of the day . . . 393-9-0
Allowance to the Brethren on West Point
for mistakes in change . . 3-5-0
The second record of General Washington at American Union Lodge took place at Morristown, New Jersey, on December 27, 1779. Quoting from the records, this was an Entered Apprentice Lodge, in celebration of the Festival of St. John the Evangelist. The list of officers, members and visitors on this occasion follows:
Officers present B Bros. Heart, W. M.; Sill, S. W.; Warner, J. W.; Richards, Treas.; Watrous, Sec'y.; Grosvenor, S. D.; Little, J. D.; Lorraine and Binns, Tylers.
Members present B Bros. Stillwill, Higgins, Worthington, Curtis, Barker, Gray, Sherman, Craig, Wilson, Bush, Judd, Heath, S. Richards, S. Wyllys, Parsons, Huntington, Smith, Judson, Clark, Hosmer, J. Wyllys, Fitch, Price, Sergeant, Graham, Whiting.
Visitors present B Bros. Washington, Gibbs, Kinney, Van Renssalaer, Jackson, Bruff, Coleman, Craig, Baldwin, Durfee, Shaw, Hunter, Lawrence, Church, Gist, Butler, Campbell, Maclure, Savage, Schuyler, Lewis, Livingston, Ten Eyck, Sherburn, MeCarter, Conine, Somers, Bevins, Bleaker, Maxwell, Dayton, Campfield, Arnold, Armstrong, Mentzer, Stagg, Smith, Sanford, Williams, Rogers, Hughes, Brewin, Woodward, Brooks, Thompson, Hervey, Machin, Piatt, Gray, Van Zandt, Edwards, Fox, Erskine, Guyon, Spear, Ellsworth, Hunt, Reacum, Conner, White, Proctor, Wetmore, Hamilton, Hanmer, Walden, Hubbard, Greenman, Peckham.
The officers, twenty-seven members in addition, and sixty-eight visitors were present. Among the many notable guests present, are recorded General George Washington, and Benedict Arnold, at least a memorandum of ("The Traitor"), is placed against the latter's name in the typewritten record. "Some Masonic writers," according to Brother C. A. Brockaway,* "have accepted this to be the traitor, but it is only a conjecture based on his being in Morristown that day. Even with all his characteristic brazenness, would Arnold under charges attend a Lodge meeting at which were present the Commander-in-Chief and seven of the men appointed to decide his fate? Perhaps he did. However, among those in attendance was Thomas Kinney, partner of Col. Jacob Arnold in the proprietorship of the building in which this communication of the Lodge was held, and may we not believe that it was the genuine patriot Col. Jacob Arnold, and not Benedict Arnold, who attended this important meeting."
* The New Age, September, 1908.
Lodge was opened, and after the usual ceremonies had been performed, the Brethren formed a procession in the following order:
1. Bro. Binns, to clear the way.
2. The Band of Music.
3. Bro. Lorraine, with a drawn sword.
4. The Deacons with their Rods.
5. The Brethren, by Juniority.
6. The Passed Masters.
7. The Secretary
8. The Treasurer.
9. The Wardens, with their Wands.
10. The Worshipful Master.
The Brethren then proceeded to the Meeting House, where a very polite discourse, adapted to the occasion, delivered by the Rev. Dr. Baldwin, of the Connecticut Line. After service the Brethren returned by the same order to the Lodge room, where a collation was served, etc., etc.; which being over, the following business was transacted:
Voted unanimously, That the thanks of the Lodge be presented to the Rev. Dr. Baldwin, for the polite address delivered by him this day in public.
Voted unanimously, That the Secretary wait on the Rev. Dr. Baldwin, with a copy of the minutes, and a request that he will favor the Lodge with a copy of the address, and permission to have it published. See page B
The visit of Brother Washington was not made a matter of special note by the Secretary, excepting to list him among the visitors.
According to Brother J. Hugo Tatsch,* Washington sat in American Union Lodge at West Point, New York, on June 24, 1782. The records of the Lodge, however, do not verify such statement, and the writer has been unable to obtain satisfactory evidence of Washington's presence on this occasion.
A return of captured Masonic records by
American soldiers is an interesting episode that occurred July
15, 1779, at the time the American army captured Stony Point,
New York. Members of American Union Lodge formed a part of the
attacking force under General Anthony Wayne. Among the articles
of the British that
* Facts About George Washington as a Freemasom, 1981, p.8.
were captured, was a chest containing the records of an English Military Lodge that belonged to one of the prominent regiments of the British Army, that later became known as the Leicestershire regiment. Following the battle, General Wayne was called to duty elsewhere, and General Samuel H. Parsons, the second Worshipful Master of American Union Lodge, was placed in command. The chest and records of the British Lodge were returned by General Parsons to the British Brethren, with the following gracious letter:
West Jersey Highlands, July 23, 1779
Brethren: When the ambition of Monarchs
of jarring interest of contending States, call forth their subjects
to war, as Masons we are disarmed of that resentment which stimulates
to undistinguished desolation; and however our political sentiments
may impel us in the public dispute, we are still Brethren, and
(our professional duty apart) ought to promote the happiness and
advance the weal of each other. Accept therefore, at the hands
of a Brother, the Constitution of the Lodge Unity No.18, to be
held in the 17th British Regiment which your late misfortunes
have put in my power to restore to you.
I am your Brother and obedient servant.
Samuel H. Parsons
In 1786 the Unity Lodge No.18 addressed
a letter to the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania from Nova Scotia,
where it then had headquarters, requesting that Grand Body to
address a letter to General Parsons in their behalf relative to
the Warrant and civilities which he had extended to them.*
* Reprint of the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1895, Vol. I, 1779-1801, p. 91.
An interesting incident connected with this
affair coming down to recent times is here introduced. About 1912
officials of American Union Lodge learned that a history of this
British regiment had been prepared, in which matters of Revolutionary
War days were recorded, and a letter advised the Lodge that a
copy was being sent to Marietta by the Masonic Brethren of the
1st battalion then stationed at Aldershot, England. This as an
expression of esteem and gratitude for the fraternal communication
from General Parsons. The book failing to come to hand, was so
reported. This caused ~m.on Lodge to make an investigation in
England which brought out the
fact that the book had gone down in the sinking of the steamship Titanic off the Newfoundland Coast. Consequently a second copy was transmitted by Brothers Lieut. Col. L. H. Croker, Color Sergeant Wm. Thomas and others, which reached its destination, and created a feeling of much gratification among the Brethren of American Union Lodge.
Did General LaFayette ever sit in American Union Lodge? In a communication on the subject, "Where and When Was LaFayette made a Mason," this subject is discussed at some length by Bro. Harry J. Guthrie, P. G. M., Delaware.* The reference herein to the supposed presence of General LaFayette in American Union Lodge, justifies reproduction here.
AThere is a tradition in Masonic circles
that General LaFayette was made a Mason in one of the military
Lodges at Morristown, N. J., where a Festal Lodge was held on
Dec.27, 1779, for which occasion the Jewels, Furniture and Clothing
of St. John's Lodge No.1 located at Newark, N. J., were borrowed.**
At this communication General George Washington and sixty-seven
including General Benedict Arnold, were present. This Lodge has been identified, so to speak, as American Union Lodge, later known as Military Union Lodge No. 1, traveling in Connecticut, New York and New Jersey, the minutes, or at least a portion of the same, being in the possession of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, so I am advised. These records do not, however, contain any
reference to LaFayette, for obvious reasons, for which I will later submit an alibi.
* The Builder, XI, 1925, pp. 75-77.
** See page 77 for reprint of minutes of St. John's Lodge. Received too late for insertion by this page.
A Gould, in the Library of Freemasonry, twentieth edition, has seen fit to make use of hearsay evidence and name the place of ceremony as Morristown, N. J., saying, >According to the late C. W. Moore, all the American Generals of the Revolution, with the exception of Benedict Arnold, were Freemasons. The Marquis de LaFayette was among the number, and it is believed that he was initiated in American Union Lodge at Morristown, N. J., the Jewels and Furniture used on the occasion being lent by St. John's Lodge, at Newark, N. J.' On the basis of this statement the publishers inserted a full page cut of the distinguished Marquis, with the following statement:
"The Marquis LaFayette was admitted into Freemasonry in American Union Lodge which was held in a room over the old Freeman's Tavern, on the north side of The Green, Morristown, N. J., during the winter of 1779, at which Bro. George Washington presided in person."
At a meeting of the Lodge on July 30, 1906, a cornmunication was read from Dr. Gilbert Patten Brown, an Honorary Member of this Lodge, in which he stated that General LaFayette was made a Master Mason in American Union Lodge at the request of St. John's Lodge of Morristown, N.J., in the winter of 1779. This statement cannot be verified. St. John's Lodge in New Jersey is also located in Newark instead of Morristown.
One may fairly assume that so distinguished a guest in the Lodge room, would at least have been recorded in the records of the Secretary. As has already been stated (Page 51) none of the Lodge records make mention of General LaFayette. The important fact brought out by Bro. Guthrie, that General LaFayette was initiated in 1779, is incorrect, because at this time he was in France, as he sailed for his native land on Feb.11, 1779, returning to America, April 28, 1780. One may get a wrong impression in the statement that Benedict Arnold was not a Mason, but this is an error. He was credited with being a member of Hiram Lodge No. 1 of New Haven, Connecticut.
The making a Freemason of Col. Rufus Putnam
of the Massachusetts line, was begun at a meeting held at Robinson
House at Nelson's Point, on July 26, 1779, when he with Col. Williams
and Maj. Thomas Byles, of the Third Pennsylvania Regiment, Lieut.
Peleg Heath, of the Third Connecticut Regiment, and Mr. Timothy
Whiting, Quartermaster at the Garrison of Fort Arnold, were severally
proposed to be made Masons, and on being subsequently balloted
for and accepted, were made Entered Apprentices. On August 26th,
Bros. Skinner and Putnam, who were made in this Lodge, and Bros.
Fernol and Sewell, who were made Entered Apprentices in a
different Lodge, being well recommended, were proposed, balloted for, accepted, and passed Fellow Crafts. Finally Bros Putnam, Craig and Hughes were severally accepted on September 9th, and raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason. From this time on, up to his death, Bro.
Rufus Putnam played a very important part in the history of American Union Lodge, as the following pages will show.
Meetings of the Lodge were held upon July 26, Aug. 2d, 7th, 20th, 26th and 28th, 1779. The records of the Secretary were very brief, and dealt nearly exclusively with the election and initiation of members.
Votes of thanks for addresses on June 24th, were adopted at a meeting on September 7. It was then Voted, That the thanks of the Lodge be presented to the Rev. Dr. Hitchcock, for the polite address delivered by him to this body, on the 24th of June last, and that Bro. Grosvenor acquaint him with the reason why they have been so long omitted; also that our thanks be presented to Bro. Hull, for his address at the same time.
An investment in lottery tickets was made a matter of record in the meeting of September 9, when the following resolution was adopted:
Resolved, that the moneys remaining in the Treasury of this Lodge on the 1st day of November next, shall be invested in Tickets of the Third Class of the United States Lottery, the avails of which shall remain in the Treasury, to be appropriated to the relief of the poor of the fraternity, or as the Brethren shall agree.
The activity of a military lodge in initiating soldiers is strikingly set forth in the Minutes of September 16 th, which are as follows:
Sept. 16 Special Masters' Lodge, at 9 o'clock, A. M. Bros. Skinner, Fernol and Sewell, heretofore proposed to be raised, were balloted for, accepted, and raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason.
Two o'clock P. M., Apprentices' Lodge opened. John Bush and Edward Spear, of the 6th and 7th Pennsylvania Regiments, and Moses Cleaveland and Edward Palmer of the 1st and 2d Connecticut Regiments, heretofore proposed, were severally balloted for, accepted and made Entered Apprentices.
Major David Smith, of the 8th Connecticut Regiment, and Dr. Jedediah Ainsworth, Surgeon's Mate to the same, were proposed by Bro. Sill; Col. Francis Johnson, of the 5th Pennsylvania Regiment, was proposed by Bro. Moore; Capt. Elisha Ely, of the 6th Connecticut Regiment, was proposed by Bro. Hosmer; Lient. Levi Dodge, of the 5th Massachusetts Regiment, was proposed by Bro. Skinner; Capt. Edward Eells, of the 3d Connecticut Regiment, was proposed by Bro. Judd; and Capt. Isaac Stutson, of Col: Putnam's Corps of Light Infantry, was proposed by Bro. Champion B all to be made Masons.
Bro. Pierce, Dep. P. M. General, was proposed for membership, duly recommended, balloted for and admitted.
The initiation of Moses Cleaveland into
American Union Lodge deserves a special notice here, he being
made an Entered Apprentice on September 16, 1779, and late was
passed to degree of Fellow Craft, but the records of the Secretary
do not give the date of passing. He was born Jan.29, 1754, and
graduated from Yale in 1777. He was one of the Connecticut men
land in Northeastern Ohio reserved for Connecticut by Congress, later known as the Western Reserve. In 1796 moved to Cleveland with a party of 50 to provide for survey and settlement. He successfully negotiated with Indians for the land, and on July 22, 1796 he selected the site of the present city, named after him later on, as his home. When the Cleveland Advertiser was established, the headline was too long for the form, so the editor dropped the "a" from Cleaveland's name, and spelled it as now given, a custom soon in general use. Brother Cleaveland died in New Haven, Conn., November 16, 1806.
The 1779 meetings were held in Robinson
House as a rule from June 24 to October 11, inclusive, this being
so indicated in the records of the Secretary, excepting on September
25, when one was held in Moore's House at West Point. According
to a memorandum affixed to the
typewritten records, and made at some comparatively recent period, "The Beverly Robinson House is opposite West Point, at what is now known as Garrisons. The house is still standing, and is owned by Ex.-Gov. Hamilton Fish."
In an article on AAmerican Union Lodge and Its Meeting Places" by Bro. Charles A. Brockaway* he states that "this building became known as 'Treason House,' and was a prominent landmark on the Hudson until March, 1882, when it was burned to the ground. The house was built by Beverly Robinson in 1750, a Scotchman, who by his marriage with a daughter of Frederick Phillipse, became very wealthy and acquired the water lot four miles square upon which the house stood."
The headquarters of the Army on the bank
of the Hudson, were near Newburg during the winter of 1782, writes
Bro. Robert Freke Gould.** So well established at this time had
the camp Lodges become, and so beneficial in their influence,
that an assembly room or hall was built to serve (among other
purposes) as a Lodge room for the military lodges. The scheme
was entrusted to General Gates to carry into execution and all
the regiments were called upon for their quota of workmen and
materials. The building was used for the first time in the early
part of 1783, and "American Union" met there in the
June of that year preparatory to celebrating with "Washington
Lodge," at West Point, the Festival of St. John. A venerable
Brother, Captain Hugh Maloy, aged 93, residing at Bethel, Ohio,
was still living in 1844, and claimed to have been initiated in
1782 in General Washington's marquee. On that occasion also General
Washington served as Worshipful Master, and it was at his hands
Captain Maloy received the light of Masonry. It is to be noted,
however, that this function was probably in Washington Lodge,
rather than American Union, for the records of the Secretary of
the latter records no visit of General Washington to that Lodge
* The New Age September, 1908.
** Masons in the War of the Revolution, The Builder, X, 1924, pp. 78-80.
Final 1779 sessions in New York were held on Sept.25 and Oct. 11. There was no special business on the 25th, and a large number of visitors were present. The Worshipful Master favored the Brethren with a lecture. On October 11 an Entered Apprentice's Lodge opened at 2 o'clock at Robinson House. Col. Francis Johnson and Maj. David Smith were balloted for, accepted, and made Entered Apprentices, Capt. MeClayton, and Lieuts. Harmon and McMurray, heretofore proposed, were withdrawn from the minutes by Bro. Moore. Dr. Ainsworth was balloted for, ana his deposit ordered to be refunded.
The presence of Col. Alexander Hamilton
at the Festival of St. John the Evangelist on December 27, 1779,
is recorded by the Secretary along with Washington among the visitors.
Again on March 6, 1780, a "Hamilton" was recorded as
present at the meeting at Morristown, but no prefix was attached
to his name. Hamilton as a captain was engaged in the battles
of Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and Princeton, and won commendation
for his skill and courage. He received his commission as Lieut.
Colonel and Aide-de-Camp to Washington in March, 1777. This was
without doubt the Hamilton who afterwards attained eminence in
American history. On June 11, 1804, he was challenged by Aaron
Burr, and as a result of the duel, died the next day. "American
history presents no more striking character than Alexander Hamilton,"
says Ge& E. Rines,* "He was not popular, nor did he strive
after popularity, but his memory and
achievements are imperishable. He lived for the public good. Eloquent and refined, able and brilliant, the embodiment of devotion, integrity and courage, he has left as deep a mark upon our political institutions as any other statesman has produced."
The removal of American Union Lodge from
New York to New Jersey, which took place in the late fall of 1779,
was in consequences of the movements of the Army, whereby the
operations of the Lodge were necessarily suspended for a short
time. No further records appear in the Secretary's minute book
until the army had gone into winter quarters in New Jersey at
*Encyclopedia Americana. Vol. XIII, 1922
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