We shall now consider the beautiful flooring of the Freemason's Lodge. As already observed, its width is equal to the diameter of a circle which is called "the Border," one  of the first things which are pointed out to the E.A. Much is made of this symbol, in speaking to him, because the E.A. is supposed to stand on the fringe of Freemasonry.
The Pavement is the first of "the Ornaments" of the Lodge enumerated in the First
Degree; and the Border is mentioned immediately after as something quite distinct from it. They will continue to be of considerable interest to us through our Masonic career. But the two are really one symbol. The Border is mentioned as a thing apart because it has a significance all its own, and because, as already said, the E.A. is then imagined to be on the edge of the Craft. The two are treated  separately to facilitate an analysis and to bring out the separate meaning of each. But the unity of the symbol is clear, and it makes a beautiful design for the floor of the Lodge.
The Border is said to be "indented and tessellated," which signifies that it is made of square tiles or fragments of such tiles, that is, squares or parts of squares, laid to cover a surface. But the Pavement consists of Mosaic, which carries a deeper significance. It lies foursquare within the ring of the Border. (see Illustration).
In modern times we have conventionalized the Border as an ornamental fringe of a carpet, with the pattern just described. But the original Border was a Zodiac, that is, a belt either circular or oval, which from ancient times used to be divided into twelve parts, whereon were depicted the twelve Signs by which certain constellations, or groups of stars, were indicated. This accounts for the statement of the W.M. when explaining the First T.B., that this symbol "refers us to the planets which in their various revolutions form a beautiful Border or skirt work round the Sun."
And this being so, it follows that when the Initiate goes round the Lodge he is but tracing the course which the orbs of space are supposed to follow, and like them he is gravitating towards the mystic Sun, this last occupying the central point wherein we conceive to be the source of all light. For the Speculative Mason begins his career on the Border, where we give him a glimpse of that Sun, and of starland generally, that he may admire the beauties of the heavens, as well as of the earth, this latter being typified by the Pavement.
That the Pavement has a cosmic significance is proved by the declaration that it is emblematic of our earthly life, "pointing out the diversity of objects which decorate and adorn the creation, the animate as well as the inanimate parts thereof." Thus, we see that, however large this earth of ours may loom, it is but part of the vast Universe, and the Mason at the center of the Pavement will find himself brought into relation with that Universe, with stars beneath his feet, stars above him and all around, the whole wonderful panorama of Starland moving forward, each star carrying out its mission of service to the G.A.O.T.U.
Here, indeed, we have a simple but impressive allegory of man's instinctive aspiration, ad astra, after the soul of nature. The numberless orbs of the celestial firmament revolve year in, year out, unceasingly, but the G.A.O.T.U. remains at the center, unmoved and immovable, the Sovereign Ruler, the Source of all power, reigning over His creation by virtue of His own perfection, unchangeable, without the least wane of His light and power. It is by the realization of this truth that the human heart is brought into tune with the Infinite.
Even the E.A. learns that the Pavement of this ideal Lodge consists of "Mosaic." Mosaic is an elaborate and delicate piece of workmanship, wherein a vast multitude of tiny cubes of different sizes and hues have been carefully combined so as to produce an artistic design of an allegorical character. And accordingly this design is described as "variegated and checkered," which means symmetrically setout and diversified in color.
But while the Pavement consists of Mosaic, the surface is flat, that is, perfectly level, for in all Mosaic only one of the six sides of each cube is exposed to view. This should remind us that similarly we only know our fellow-creatures by their external acts, their aims and motives being more or less obscure and  problematical. Wherefore any judgment we may pass on them must necessarily be based on a very imperfect and limited knowledge.
As with the Border, we have conventionalized this symbol by a plain rectangular carpet with a pattern of black and white squares which we lay on the floor of our Lodges; it is only where it meets the Border that we see any half-squares or broken sections.
This accords with the cryptic reference
to the form of the Lodge when we explain it to the Initiate: "
Pendant to the corners of the Lodge are four tassels meant to
remind us of the four cardinal virtues, namely: Temperance, Fortitude,
Prudence, and Justice." Thus we see again that everything
in the Lodge has its moral application. The four virtues named
circumscribe a Mason's sphere of life; their symbols, the tassels,
are at the four extreme points.
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