1 - Why was Hiram, our ancient Grand
Master, called "ABIF?"
ABIF. A Hebrew word, signifying "his father." It is often used in the Scriptures as a title of honor. It was given to Hiram, the Tyrian builder, probably on account of his distinguished skill.
2 - How is moral purification symbolized?
ABLUTION. Washing, or literally, a washing off, i. e., making one clean from all pollution. In the ancient mysteries it constituted a part of the preparation for initiation, and was a symbolical representation of moral purification. The ceremony is practiced in some of the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted rite.
3 - What is the ancient rule regarding attendance at Lodge?
ABSENCE. This term is usually applied to being absent by permission, for a specified time, during the regular meetings of the Lodge, and in such a manner as not to interfere with the harmony or working of the body. Long or continued absence from the Lodge meetings is contrary to the duties inculcated by the ancient charges of the Order, which prescribe, as a rule, "that no Master or Fellow could be absent from the Lodge, especially when warned to appear at it, without incurring a severe censure, unless it appeared to the Master and Wardens that pure necessity hindered him."
4 - What is the symbolism of the sprig of Acacia?
ACACIA. An interesting and important symbol in Freemasonry. Botanically, it is the acacia vera of Tournefort, and the mimosa nilotlea of Linnaeus. It grew abundantly in the vicinity of Jerusalem, where it is still to be found, and is familiar in its modern use as the tree from which the gum arabic of commerce is derived.
The acacia, which in Scripture, is always called Shittah, and in the plural Shittim, was esteemed a sacred wood among the Hebrews. Of it Moses was ordered to make the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the table for the shewbread, and the rest of the sacred furniture. Isaiah, in recounting the promises of God's mercy to the Israelites on their return from the captivity, tells them that, among other things, he will plant in the wilderness, for their relief and refreshment, the cedar, the acacia, the fir and other trees.
 The first thing, then, that we notice in this symbol of the acacia, is that it had been always consecrated from among the other trees of the forest by the sacred purposes to which it was devoted. By the Jew, the tree from whose wood the sanctuary of the tabernacle and the holy ark had been constructed would ever be viewed as more sacred than ordinary trees. The early Masons, therefore, very naturally appropriated this hallowed plant to the equally sacred purpose of a symbol, which was to teach an important divine truth in all ages to come.
Having thus briefly disposed of the natural history of this plant, we may now proceed to examine it in its symbolic relations.
FIRST. The acacia, in the mythic system of Freemasonry, is pre eminently the symbol of the immortality of the soul - that important doctrine which it is the great design of the institution to teach. As the evanescent nature of the flower, which "cometh forth and is cut down," reminds us of the transitory nature of human life, so the perpetual renovation of the evergreen plant, which uninterruptedly presents the appearance of youth and vigor, is aptly compared to that spiritual life in which the soul, freed from the corruptible body, shall enjoy an eternal spring and an immortal youth. Hence, in the impressive funeral service of our Order, it is said that "this ever green is an emblem of our faith in the immortality of the soul. By this we are reminded that we have an immortal part within us, which shall survive the grave, and which shall never, never, never die." And again, in the closing sentences of the monitorial lecture of the third degree, the same sentiment is repeated, and we are told that by "the evergreen and the ever living sprig" the Mason is strengthened "with confidence and composure to look forward to a blessed immortality." Such an interpretation of the symbol is an easy and a natural one; it suggests itself at once to the least reflective mind; and consequently, in some one form or another, is to be found existing in all ages and nations. It was an ancient custom, - which is not, even now, altogether disused, - for mourners to carry in their hands at funerals a sprig of some evergreen, generally the cedar or the cypress, and to deposit it in the grave of the deceased.
But, lastly, the acacia may also be considered as the symbol of initiation. This is by far the most interesting of its interpretations, and was, we have every reason to believe, the primary and original; the others being but incidental. It leads us at once to the investigation of the significant fact that in all the ancient initiations and religious mysteries there was some plant peculiar to each, which was consecrated by its own esoteric meaning, and which occupied an important position in the celebration of the rites, so that the plant, whatever it might be, from its constant and prominent use in the  ceremonies of initiation, came at length to be adopted as the symbol of that initiation.
Thus, the lettuce was the sacred plant which assumed the place of the acacia in the mysteries of Adonis. The lotus was that of the Brahmanical rites of India, and from them adopted by the Egyptians. The Egyptians also revered the erica or heath; and the mistletoe was a mystical plant among the Druids. And lastly, the myrtle performed the same office of symbolism in the mysteries of Greece that the lotus did in Egypt or the mistletoe among the Druids.
In all of these ancient mysteries, while the sacred plant was a symbol of initiation, the initiation itself was symbolic of the resurrection to a future life, and of the immortality of the soul. In this view, Freemasonry is to us now in the place of the ancient initiations, and the acacia is substituted for the lotus, the erica, the ivy, the mistletoe, and the myrtle. The lesson is the same - the medium of imparting it is all that has been changed.
Returning, then, to the acacia, we find that it is capable of two explanations. It is a symbol of immortality, and of initiation; but these two significations are closely connected, and that connection must be observed, if we desire to obtain a just interpretation of the symbol. Thus, in this one symbol, we are taught that in the initiation of life, of which the initiation in the third degree is simply emblematic, innocence must for a time lie in the grave, at length, how ever, to be called, by the word of the Grand Master of the Universe, to a blissful immortality. Combine with this the recollection of the place where the sprig of acacia was planted, - Mount Calvary, - the place of sepulture of him who "brought life and immortality to light," and who, in Christian Masonry, is designated, as he is in Scripture, as "the lion of the tribe of Judah;" and remember, too, that in the mystery of his death, the wood of the cross takes the place of the acacia, and in this little and apparently insignificant symbol, which is really the most important and significant one in Masonic science, we have a beautiful suggestion of all the mysteries of life and death, of time and eternity, of the present and of the future.
5 - Why are Masons said to be "Free and Accepted?"
ACCEPTED. A term in Freemasonry which is synonymous with "initiated" or "received into the society." Thus, we find in the Regulations of 1663, such expressions as these: "No person who shall hereafter be accepted a Freemason shall be admitted into a lodge or assembly until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him, unto the Master of that limit or division where such Lodge is kept." The word seems to have been first used in 1663 and, in the Regulations of that Year: is constantly employed in the place of the olden term "made,"  as equivalent to "initiated." This is especially evident in the 6th Regulation, which says, "that no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty one years old or more;" where accepted clearly means initiated. As the word was introduced in 1663, its use seems also to have soon ceased, for it is not found in any subsequent documents until 1738; neither in the Regulations of 1721; nor in the Charges approved in 1722; except once in the latter, where "laborers and unaccepted Masons" are spoken of as distinguished from and inferior to "Freemasons." In the Regulations of 1721, the words "made," "entered," or "admitted," are constantly employed in its stead. But in 1738, Anderson, who, in publishing the 2d edition of the Book of Constitutions, made many verbal alterations which seem subsequently to have been disapproved of by the Grand Lodge, again introduced the word accepted. Thus, in the 5th of the Regulations of 1721, which in the edition of 1723 read as follows, "But no man can be made or admitted a member of a particular Lodge," etc., he changed the phraseology so as to make the article read: "No man can be accepted a member of a particular Lodge," etc. And so attached does he appear to have become to this word that he changed the very name of the Order, by altering the title of the work, which, in the edition of 1723, was "The Constitutions of Freemasons," to that of "The Constitutions of the Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons." Although many of the innovations of the edition of 1738 of the Book of Constitutions were subsequently repudiated by the Grand Lodge, and omitted in succeeding editions, the title of "Free and Accepted Masons" was retained, and is now more generally used than the older and simpler one of "Freemasons," to distinguish the society. The word accepted, however, as a synonym of initiated, has now become obsolete. The modern idea of an accepted Mason is that he is one distinguished from a purely operative or stone mason, who has not been admitted to the freedom of the company; an idea evidently intended to be conveyed by the use of the word in the Charges of 1722, already quoted.
6 - What is the meaning of "Free Will and Accord?"
ACCORD. We get this word from two Latin ones ad cor, to the heart, and hence it means hearty consent. Thus in Wiclif's translation we find the phrase in Philippians, which in the Authorized Version is "with one accord," rendered "with one will, with one heart." Such is its significance in the Masonic formula, "free will and accord," that is "free will and hearty consent."
7 - What is the preliminary step in every Masonic trial?
ACCUSATION. The preliminary step in every trial is the accusation. This, in Masonic language, is called the charge. The charge  should always be made in writing, signed by the accuser, delivered to the Secretary and read by that officer at the next regular communication of the Lodge. The accused should then be furnished with an attested copy of the charge, and be at the same time informed of the time and place appointed by the Lodge for the trial.
8 - Who is the prosecuting officer of a Lodge?
ACCUSER. In every trial in a Lodge for an offense against the 'laws and regulations or the principles of Masonry any Master Mason may be the accuser of another, but a profane cannot be permitted to prefer charges against a Mason. Yet, if circumstances are known to a profane upon which charges ought to be predicated, a Master Mason may avail himself of that information, and out of it frame an accusation to be presented to the Lodge. And such accusation will be received and investigated, although remotely derived from one who is not a member of the Order.
It is not necessary that the accuser should be a member of the same Lodge. It is sufficient if he is an affiliated Mason; but it is generally held that an unaffiliated Mason is no more competent to prefer charges than a profane.
In consequence of the Junior Warden being placed over the Craft during the hours of refreshment, and of his being charged at the time of his installation to see "that none of the Craft be suffered to convert the purposes of refreshment into those of intemperance and excess," it has been very generally supposed that it is his duty, as the prosecuting officer of the Lodge, to prefer charges against any member who, by his conduct, has made himself amenable to the penal jurisdiction of the Lodge. I know of no ancient regulation which imposes this unpleasant duty upon the Junior Warden; but it does seem to be a very natural deduction, from his peculiar prerogative as the guardian of the conduct of the Craft, that in all cases of violation of the law he should, after due efforts towards producing a reform, be the proper officer to bring the conduct of the offending brother to the notice of the Lodge.
9 - Does acquittal of a Mason by a fury prevent his being tried again by a Lodge on the same charge?
ACQUITTAL. Under this head it may be proper to discuss two questions of Masonic law. 1. Can a Mason, having been acquitted by the courts of the country of an offense with which he has been charged, be tried by his Lodge for the same offense. And, 2. Can a Mason, having been acquitted by his Lodge on insufficient evidence, be subjected, on the discovery and production of new and more complete evidence, to a second trial for the same offense? To both of these questions the correct answer would seem to be in the affirmative.
 1. An acquittal of a crime by a temporal court does not relieve a Mason from an inquisition into the same offense by his Lodge; for acquittals may be the result of some technicality of law, or other cause, where, although the party is relieved from legal punishment, his guilt is still manifest in the eyes of the community; and if the Order were to be controlled by the action of the courts, the character of the Institution might be injuriously affected by its permitting a man, who had escaped without honor from the punishment of the law, to remain a member of the Fraternity. In the language of the Grand Lodge of Texas, "an acquittal by a jury, while it may, and should, in some circumstances, have its influence in deciding on the course to be pursued, yet has no binding force in Masonry. We decide on our own rules, and our own view of the facts."
2. To come to a correct apprehension of the second question, we must remember that it is a long settled principle of Masonic law, that every offense which a Mason commits is an injury to the whole Fraternity, for the bad conduct of a single member reflects discredit on the whole Institution. This is a very old and well established principle of the Institution; and hence we find the old Gothic Constitutions declaring that "a Mason shall harbor no thief or thief's retainer," and assigning as a reason, "lest the Craft should come to shame." The safety of the Institution requires that no evil disposed member should be permitted with impunity to bring disgrace on the Craft. And, therefore, although it is a well known maxim of the common law that no one should be twice placed in peril of punishment for the same crime; yet we must also remember that ,ither and fundamental maxim - salus populi suprema lax - which may, in its application to Masonry, be well translated: "the well being of the Order is the first great law." To this everything else must yield; and therefore if a member, having been accused of a heinous offense and tried, shall on his trial for want of sufficient evidence be acquitted, or being convicted shall for the same reason be punished by an inadequate penalty - and if he shall thus be permitted to remain in the Institution with the stigma of the crime upon him, "whereby the Craft comes to shame;" then, if new and more sufficient evidence shall be subsequently discovered, it is just and right that 'a new trial shall be had, so that he may on this newer evidence receive that punishment which will vindicate the reputation of the Order. No technicalities of law, no plea of autre f ois acquit, nor mere verbal exception, should be allowed for the escape of a guilty member; for so long as he lives in the Order, every man is subject to its discipline. A hundred wrongful acquittals of a bad member, who still bears with him the reproach of his evil life, can never discharge the Order from its paramount duty of protecting its own good fame and removing the delinquent member from its fold. To  this great duty all private and individual rights and privileges must succumb.
10 - What action should a Lodge take on receipt of a favorable report on a petition?
ACTION ON PETITION. The petition of the candidate having been referred to a committee, and that committee having reported favor. ably, the next step in the process is to submit the petition to the members of the Lodge for their acceptance or rejection. The law upon which this usage is founded is contained in the sixth article of the General Regulations of 1721, which declares that "no man can be entered a Brother in any particular Lodge, or admitted a member thereof, without the unanimous consent of all the members of the Lodge then present when the candidate is proposed, and their consent is formally asked by the Master." No peculiar mode of expressing this opinion is laid down in any of the ancient Constitutions; on the contrary, the same sixth article goes on to say that the members "are to signify their consent or dissent in their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but with unanimity." Universal and uninterrupted usage, however, in this country, has required the votes on the application of candidates to be taken by ballot, which has been very wisely done, because thereby the secrecy and consequent independence of election is secured.
11 - When is a Lodge or brother said to be "active?" Active.. A Lodge is called active when it assembles regularly; and a brother when he is a working member of such a lodge. Many brethren visit a lodge who never or very seldom take part in lodge work, either because they live too far distant from the lodge, or because they are not sufficiently interested. Every lodge and every officer ought to strive diligently to make the work interesting to avoid the last imputation, but if they find their endeavors in vain, or that there is any brother who will not pay due attention to the work, they ought to endeavor to reclaim him, first by fraternal remonstrances; or if those do not avail, by punishment. By the death or removal of the members, a lodge may become inactive for a time, and it is better that it should be so than that the continuing of the work should be. entrusted to inexperienced officers.
12 - What are the prerogatives of the active members of a Lodge?
ACTIVE MEMBERSHIP, PREROGATIVES OF. Every Master Mason, who is a member of a Lodge, has a right to speak and, vote on all questions that come before the Lodge for discussion, except on trials in which he is himself interested. Rules of order may be established  restricting the length and number of speeches, but these are of a local nature, and will vary with the by laws of each Lodge.
A Mason may also be restricted from voting on ordinary questions where his dues for a certain period - generally twelve months - have not been paid; and such a Regulation exists in almost every Lodge. But no local by law can deprive a member who has not been suspended, from voting on the ballot for the admission of candidates, because the Sixth Regulation of 1721 distinctly requires that each member present on such occasion shall give his consent before the candidate can be admitted. And if a member were deprived, by any by law of the Lodge, in consequence of non payment of his dues, of the right of expressing his consent or dissent, the ancient Regulation would be violated, and a candidate might be admitted without the unanimous consent of all the members present.
13 - What President of the United States was a bitter opponent of Free masonry?
Adams, John Quincy, the sixth President of the United States, who served from 1825 to 1829. Mr. Adams, who has been very properly described as "a man of strong points and weak ones, of vast reading and wonderful memory, of great credulity and strong prejudices," became notorious in the latter years of his life for his virulent opposition to Freemasonry. The writer already quoted, and who had an excellent opportunity of seeing intimately the workings of the spirit of anti Masonry, says of Mr. Adams: "He hated Free masonry, as he did many other things, not from any harm that he had received from it or personally knew respecting it, but because his credulity had been wrought upon and his prejudices excited against it by dishonest and selfish politicians, who were anxious, at any sacrifice to him, to avail themselves of the influence of his commanding talents and position in public life to sustain them in the disreputable work in which they were enlisted. In his weakness, he lent himself to them. He united his energies to theirs in an impracticable and unworthy cause." The result was a series of letters abusive of Freemasonry, directed to leading politicians, and published in the public journals from 1831 to 1833. A year before his death they were collected and published under the title of "Letters on the Masonic Institution, by John Quincy Adams." Some ex planation of the cause of the virulence with which Mr. Adams attacked the Masonic Institution in these letters may be found in the following paragraph contained in an anti Masonic work written by one Henry Gassett, and affixed to his Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution. "It had been asserted in a newspaper in Boston, edited by a Masonic dignitary, that John Q. Adams was a Mason. In answer to an inquiry from a person in New York State, whether he was so,  Mr. Adams replied that `he was not, and never should be.' " These few words, undoubtedly, prevented his election a second term as president of the United States. His competitor, Andrew Jackson, a Freemason, was elected. Whether the statement contained in the italicized words be true or not, is not the question. It is sufficient that Mr. Adams was led to believe it, and hence his ill will to an association which had, as he supposed, inflicted this political evil on him, and baffled his ambitious views.
14 - What are the qualifications of Lodge officers?
ADDRESS. Those who accept office and exercise authority in the lodge, ought to be men of prudence and address, enjoying the ad vantages of a well cultivated mind and retentive memory. All men are not blessed with the same powers and talents; all men, therefore, are not equally qualified to govern. He who wishes to teach must submit to learn; and no one can be qualified to occupy the higher offices of the lodge who has not previously discharged the duties of those which are subordinate. Experience is the best preceptor. Every man may rise by graduation, but merit and industry are the first steps to preferment.
15 - What rules govern a brother while speaking in Lodge?
ADDRESSING A LODGE. No brother shall speak twice to the same question, unless in explanation, or the mover in reply. Every one who speaks shall rise, and remain standing, addressing himself to the Master, nor shall any brother presume to interrupt him, unless he shall be wandering from the point, or the Master shall think fit to call him to order; but, after he has been set right, he may proceed, if he observe due order and decorum.
16 - To whom does the term "Adhering Mason" apply?
ADHERING MASON. Those Masons who, during the anti Masonic excitement in this country, on account of the supposed abduction of Morgan, refused to leave their Lodges and renounce Masonry were so called. Among their number were some of the wisest, best and Most influential men of the country.
17 How many candidates can be made Masons on the same day?
ADMISSION. Not more than five new brothers shall be made in tiny one lodge on the same day, nor any man under the age of twenty one years, unless by dispensation from the Grand Master. Every candidate for admission must be a freeman, and his own master and, at the time of initiation, be known to be in reputable circumstances. He should be a lover of the liberal arts and sciences, and have made some progress in one or another of them.
 18 - Has a Master the right to deny a member admission to his own Lodge?
ADMISSION OF MEMBERS. Coincident with the power of admitting or excluding a visitor from another Lodge, is that of refusing or consenting to the admission of a member. The ritual of opening expressly says that none shall "pass or repass but such as are duly qualified and have the Worshipful Master's permission;" and if the prerogative of refusing admission to a brother hailing from another Lodge is vested solely in the Master, that he may be enabled, by this discretionary power, to maintain the by laws and regulations of the Order, and preserve the harmony of the Lodge, it seems evident that he should be possessed of equal power in respect to his own members, because it may happen that the admission even of a member might sometimes create discord, and if the Master is aware that such would be the result, it must be acknowledged that he would be but exercising his duty in refusing the admission of such a member. But as this prerogative affects, in no slight degree, the rights of membership, which inure to every Mason who has signed the by laws, it should be exercised with great caution; and where a member has been unjustly, or without sufficient cause, deprived of the right of visiting his own Lodge, there can be no question that he has the right of preferring charges against the Master in the Grand Lodge, whose duty it is to punish every arbitrary or oppressive exercise of prerogative.
19 - What right has a new Lodge with respect to the admission of members?
ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS. The warrant of constitution having been granted permanently and for the general objects of Masonry, and not for a specific purpose and a prescribed period, as is the case with Lodges under dispensation, the quality of perpetuity is granted with it as one of the necessary conditions. But this perpetuity can only be secured by the admission of new members to supply the places of those who die or demit. This admission may take place either by the initiation of profanes, who acquire by that initiation the right of membership, or by the election of unaffiliated Masons.
20 - Has a Master of a Lodge the right to decline to admit, as a visitor, a Master Mason in good standing?
ADMISSION OF VISITORS. A prerogative of the Master of a Lodge is that of controlling the admission of visitors. He is required by his installation charge to see that no visitors be received without passing a due examination and producing proper vouchers; and this duty he cannot perform unless the right of judging of the nature of that examination and of those vouchers be solely vested in him self, and the discretionary power of admission or rejection be placed in his hands. The Lodge cannot, therefore, interfere with this  prerogative, nor can the question be put to it whether a particular visitor shall be admitted. The Master is, in all such cases, the sole judge, without appeal from his decision.
21 - What is the duty of the Tiler with reference to the admission of per sons to a Lodge room?
ADMITTANCE TO THE LODGE. The first and most important duty of the Tiler is to guard the door of the Lodge, and to permit no one to pass in who is not duly qualified, and who has not the permission of the Master. Of these qualifications, in doubtful cases, he is not himself to judge; but on the approach of any one who is unknown to him, he should apprize the Lodge by the usual formal method. As the door is peculiarly under his charge, he should never, for an instant, be absent from his post. He should neither open the door himself from without, nor permit it to be opened by the Junior Deacon from within, without the preliminary alarm.
22 - How should a brother be admonished?
ADMONITION. If a brother grossly misconduct himself, let him be admonished privately by the Worshipful Master; try every gentle means to convince him of his errors; probe the wound with a delicate hand; and use very mild expedient to work his reform. Perhaps he may save his brother, and give to society a renewed and valuable member.
23 - Who was Adoniram?
ADONIRAM. This prince was appointed by King Solomon to super intend the contribution towards building the temple, as well as the levy of 30,000 Israelites to work by monthly courses in the forest of Lebanon. For this purpose, and to insure the utmost regularity, an old masonic tradition informs us that he divided them into lodges, placing three hundred in each, under a Master and Wardens, himself being Grand Master over all. He was also constituted by the king one of the seven Grand Superintendents, and Chief of the Provosts and Judges.
24 - What is the relation of women to Masonry in France and in America:,
ADOPTIVE MASONRY. A name given to certain degrees resembling Masonry, and Masonic in spirit, which have been invented for ladies who have claims upon. the Order of Freemasonry, through relatives who are members of it. Adoptive Masonry first made its appearance in France, in the early part of the 18th century, and is still a legal and regular branch of the Institution in that country. The French rite has four degrees:
4. Perfect Mistress. The officers of a Lodge of Adoption are a Grand Master and a Grand Mistress; an Orator; an Inspector, and  Inspectress; a Depositor and Depositrex; a Conductor and Conductress. They wear blue collars, with a gold trowel pendant therefrom, white aprons, and gloves. The members also wear the jewel of the Order, which is a golden ladder with five rounds, on the left breast. Many of the most distinguished ladies of Europe have been, and are now, members of this Order. Among them were the Duchess of Bourbon, the Empress Josephine, Lady Montague, Duchess Elizabeth Chesterfield, and the Empress Eugenie. The Adoptive Lodges were at first rapidly diffused throughout all the countries of Europe except the British empire. But the American Adoptive rite is better adapted to the United States, and has excited considerable interest, and found many powerful advocates in this country. It consists of five degrees, as follows:
1. Jephthah's daughter, or the Daughter's degree, illustrating respect to the binding force of a vow;
2. Ruth, or the Widow's degree, illustrating devotion to religious principles;
3. Esther, or the Wife's degree, illustrating fidelity to kindred and friends;
4. Martha, or the Sister's degree, illustrating undeviating faith in the hour of trial;
5. Electa, or the Benevolent degree, illustrating charity and courage, with patience and submission under wrongs.
All the degrees together are called the "Rite of the Eastern Star," and are very beautiful and impressive. Ladies who have received these degrees have a ready and efficient means of commanding the services of Freemasons whenever and wherever they may need them. The moral teachings of the Eastern Star degrees are excellent, and cannot fail to make a good impression. Notwithstanding that there is among some Masons a strong feeling against any form of Adoptive Masonry, it cannot be questioned that the spirit of the age demands something of the kind. Masons cannot find a surer safeguard and protection for their wives, sisters, and daughters than is furnished by the American Adoptive rite or Order of the Eastern Star. To the objection that the degrees are not Masonic, it may be replied that they are as much so as any degree outside of the Symbolical Lodge. No degrees above the first three are Masonic, except by adoption.
25 - How is the word "advanced" technically used in Masonry?
ADVANCED. This word has two technical meanings in Masonry.
1. We speak of a candidate as being advanced when he has passed from a lower to a higher degree; as we say that a candidate is qualified for advancement from the Entered Apprentice's degree to that of a Fellow Craft when he has made that "suitable proficiency in the former which, by the regulations of the Order, entitle him to receive the initiation into and the instructions of the latter." And when the Apprentice has thus been promoted to the second degree he is said to have advanced in Masonry.
 2. The word is peculiarly applied to the initiation of a candidate in the Mark degree, which is the fourth in the American modification of the York Rite. The Master Mason is thus said to be "advanced to the honorary degree of a Mark Master," to indicate either that he has now been promoted one step beyond the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry on his way to the Royal Arch, or to express the fact that he has been elevated from the common class of Fellow Crafts to that higher and more select one which, according to the traditions of Masonry, constituted, at the first Temple, the class of Mark Masters.
26 - What is the status of an Entered Apprentice if the Lodge denies him advancement?
ADVANCEMENT, DENIAL OF. An Apprentice has the right to apply for advancement; but the Lodge in which he was initiated has the correlative right to reject his application. And thereby no positive right of any person is affected; for, by this rejection of the candidate for advancement, no other injury is done to him than the disappointment of his expectations. His character as an Entered Apprentice is not impaired. He still possesses all the rights and prerogatives that he did before, and continues, notwithstanding the rejection of his application, to be an Apprentice "in good standing," and entitled, as before, to all the rights and privileges of a possessor of that degree.
27 - Does an Entered Apprentice have the right of advancement?
ADVANCEMENT, RIGHT OF. Apprentices have the right to apply for advancement to a higher degree. Out of the class of Apprentices the Fellow Crafts are made; and as this eligibility to promotion really constitutes the most important right of this inferior class of our Brethren, it is well worthy of careful consideration. I say, then, that the Entered Apprentice possesses the right of application to be passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft. He is eligible as a candidate; but here this right ceases. It goes no farther than the mere prerogative of applying. It is only the right of petition. The Apprentice has, in fact, no more claim to the second degree than the profane has to the first. It is a most mistaken opinion to suppose that when a profane is elected as a candidate, he is elected to receive all the degrees that can be conferred in a Symbolic Lodge. Freemasonry is a rigid system of probation. A second step never can be attained hntil sufficient proof has been given in the preceding that the candidate is "worthy and well qualified." A candidate who has received the first degree is no more assured by this reception that he will reach the third, than that he will attain the Royal Arch. In the very ceremony of his reception he may have furnished convincing evidence of his unfitness to proceed further; and it would become the duty of  the Lodge, in that case, to debar his future progress. A bad Apprentice will make a worse Master Mason; for he who cannot comply with the comparatively simple requisitions of the first degree, will certainly be incapable of responding to the more important duties and obligations of the third. Hence, on the petition of an Apprentice to be passed as a Fellow Craft, a ballot should always be taken. This is but in accordance with the meaning of the word; for a petition is a prayer for something which may or may not be refused, and hence, if the petition is granted, it is ex gratin, or by the voluntary favor of the Lodge, which, if it chooses, may withhold its assent. Any other view of the case would exclude that inherent right which is declared by the Regulations of 1721 to exist in every Lodge, of being the best judges of the qualifications of its own members.
28 - What are the supports of the adytum or Lodge?
ADYTUM. In the British and other Mysteries the three pillars of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty represented the great emblematical Triad of Deity, whereas with us they refer to the three principal officers of the lodge. We shall find, however, that the symbolical meaning is the same. In Britain the Adytum or lodge was actually supported by three stones or pillars, which were supposed to convey a regenerating purity to the aspirant, after having endured the ceremony of initiation in all its accustomed formalities. The delivery from between them was termed a new birth. The corresponding pillars of the Hindu Mythology were also known by the names of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, and were placed in the east, west, and south, crowned with three human heads. They jointly referred to the Creator, who was said to have planned the Great Work by his infinite Wisdom; executed it by his Strength; and adorned it with all its Beauty and use fulness for the benefit of man.
29 - Of what were the ancient Lodges schools?
AFFABILITY. The ancient lodges were so many schools or academies for teaching and improving the arts of designing, especially architecture; and the present lodges are often employed in that way in lodge hours, or else in agreeable conversation, though without politics or party feeling. None of them are ill employed; they have no transaction unworthy of an honest man or a gentleman; no personal piques, no quarrels, no cursing and swearing, no cruel mockings, no obscene talk, or ill manners, for the noble and eminent brethren are affable to the meanest; and these are duly respectful to their betters in harmony and proportion; and though on the level, yet always within compass, and according to the square and plumb.
 30 - What is the distinction between an affiliated and a non affiliated Mason?
AFFILIATED. A word that designates a Mason as a member of some Lodge. A Mason who does not belong to any Lodge is styled "Non Affiliated."
31 - What is the Masonic meaning of the term "affiliation?"
AFFILIATION. Initiation indicates the first reception of a person into a Masonic Lodge; affiliation denotes the reception of one already a Mason into some other Lodge than the one in which he received the Light.
All the rights and duties that accrue to a Master Mason, by virtue of membership in the Lodge in which he was initiated, likewise accrue to him who has been admitted to membership by affiliation. There is no difference in the relative standing of either class of members: their prerogatives, the privileges, and their obligations are the same.
There is, however, a difference in the methods of admission. Those who acquire membership in a Lodge, by virtue of having received therein the third degree, obtain that membership as a matter of right, without petition and without ballot. But a Master Mason, who is desirous of affiliating with a Lodge in which he was not initiated, or in which, after initiation, he had at the legal time declined or neglected to assert his right of membership, must apply by petition. This petition must be read at a regular communication of the Lodge, and be referred to a committee of investigation, which committee, at the next regular communication (a month having intervened), will report on the character and qualifications of the candidate; and if the report be favorable, the Lodge will proceed to ballot. As in the case of initiation, the ballot is required to be unanimously in favor of the applicant to secure his election. One black ball is sufficient to reject him.
All of these Regulations, which are of ancient date and of general usage, are founded on the fifth and sixth of the Regulations of 1721, and are, it will be seen, the same as those which govern the petition and ballot for initiation. The Regulations of 1721 make no difference in the cases of profanes who seek to be made Masons, and Masons who desire affiliation or membership in a Lodge. In both cases "previous notice, one month before," must be given to the Lodge, "due inquiry into the reputation and capacity of the candidate" must be made, and the "unanimous consent of all the members then present" must be obtained. Nor can this unanimity be dispensed with in one ease any more than it can in the other. It is the inherent privilege of every Lodge to judge of the qualifications of its o`vn members, "nor is this inherent privilege subject to a dispensation."
 32 - Are there any geographical restrictions on the right of affiliation?
AFFILIATION OF NON RESIDENTS. Some Grand Lodges have adopted a Regulation requiring a Mason, living in their respective jurisdictions, to unite himself in membership with some Lodge in the said jurisdiction, and refusing to accord the rights of affiliation to one who belongs to a Lodge outside of the jurisdiction. But I have no doubt that this is a violation of the spirit of the ancient law. A Mason living in California may retain his membership in a Lodge in the State of New York, and by so doing, is as much an affiliated Mason, in every sense of the word, as though he had acquired membership in a California Lodge. I do not advocate the practice of holding membership in distant Lodges; for I believe that it is highly expedient, and that a Mason will much more efficiently discharge his duties to the Order by acquiring membership in the Lodge which is nearest to his residence, than in one which is at a great distance; but I simply contend for the principle, as one of Masonic jurisprudence, that a Master Mason has a right to apply for membership in any Lodge on the face of the globe, and that membership in a Lodge carries with it the rights of affiliation wherever the member may go.
33 - To what Lodge or Lodges may a Mason apply for affiliation?
AFFILIATION, PETITION FOR. There is one difference between the condition of a profane petitioning for admission, and that of a Master Mason applying for membership, which claims our notice.
A profane can apply for initiation only to the Lodge nearest his place of residence; but no such Regulation exists in reference to a Master Mason applying for membership. He is not confined in the exercise of this privilege within any geographical limits. No matter how distant the Lodge of his choice may be from his residence, to that Lodge he has as much right to apply as to the Lodge which is situated at the very threshold of his home. A Mason is expected to affiliate with some Lodge. The ancient Constitutions specify nothing further on the subject. They simply prescribe that every Mason should belong to a Lodge, without any reference to its peculiar locality, and a Brother therefore complies with the obligation of affiliation when he unites himself with any Lodge, no matter how distant; and by thus contributing to the support of the institution, he discharges his duty as a Mason, and becomes entitled to all the privileges of the Order.
This usage - for, in the absence of a positive law on the subject, it has become a Regulation, from the force of custom only - is undoubtedly derived from the doctrine of the universality of Masonry. The whole body of the craft, wheresoever dispersed, being considered. by the fraternal character of the institution, as simply component  parts of one great family, no peculiar rights of what might be called Masonic citizenship are supposed to be acquired by a domiciliation in one particular place. The Mason who is at home and the Mason who comes from abroad are considered on an equal footing as to all Masonic rights; and hence the Brother made in Europe is as much a Mason when he comes to America, and is as fully qualified to discharge in America all Masonic functions, without any form of naturalization, as though he had been made in this country. The converse is equally true. Hence no distinctions are made, and no peculiar rights acquired by membership in a local Lodge. Affiliation with the Order, of which every Lodge is equally a part, confers the privileges of active Masonry. Therefore no law has ever prescribed that a Mason must belong to the Lodge nearest to his residence, but generally that he must belong to a Lodge; and consequently the doctrine is, as it has been enunciated above, that a Master Mason may apply for affiliation, and unite himself with any Lodge which is legal and regular, no matter how near to, or how far from his place of residence.
34 - What is the relation of the ancient love feast to Masonry?
AGAPE. Love feast. A banquet of charity, among the early Christians. St. Chrysostom thus describes its origin and purposes: "At first Christians had all things in common; but when that equality of possession ceased, as it did even in the Apostle's time, the Agape, or love feast, was instituted instead of it. Upon certain days, after the religious services were closed, they met at a common feast, the rich bringing provisions, and the poor, who had nothing, being invited. These meetings were held in secret." The Agape cannot but call to mind the Table lodges of Freemasonry, and, in truth, these owe their origin to the love feasts of the primitive Christians. A distinguished German scholar, A. Kestner, professor of Theology at Jena, published a work in 1819, entitled, "The Agape, or the Secret World Society - Weltbund, of the primitive Christians" - i.e., a society apart from their spiritual organization - "founded by Clemens, at Rome, in the reign of Domitian, having a hierarchical constitution, and a ground system of Masonic symbolism, and mysteries." In this Work he argues that there was a direct connection between the Agape and the Table lodge of Freemasons.
35 - Of what was the stone of foundation formed?
AGATE. Among the Masonic traditions is one which asserts that the stone of foundation was formed of agate. This, like everything connected with the legend of the stone, is to be mystically interpreted. In this view, agate is a symbol of strength and beauty, a symbolism derived from the peculiar character of the agate which  is distinguished for its compact formation, and the ornamental character of its surface.
36 - Is the age of twenty one the lawful age of admission in all Masonic jurisdictions?
AGE, LAWFUL. The ancient Regulations do not express any determinate number of years at the expiration of which a candidate becomes legally entitled to apply for admission. The language used is, that he must be of "mature and discreet age." But the usage of the Craft has differed in various countries as to the construction of the time when this period of maturity and discretion is supposed to have arrived. The sixth of the Regulations, adopted in 1663, prescribes that "no person shall be accepted unless he be twenty one years old, or more;" but the subsequent Regulations are less explicit. At Frankfort on the Main, the age required is twenty; in the Lodges of Switzerland, it has been fixed at twenty one. The Grand Lodge of Hanover prescribes the age of twenty five, but permits the son of a Mason to be admitted at eighteen. The Grand Lodge of Hamburg decrees that the lawful age for initiation shall be that which in any country has been determined by the laws of the land to be the age of majority. The Grand Orient of France requires the candidate to be twenty one unless he be the son of a Mason, who hasp performed some important service to the Order, or unless he be a young man who has served six months in the army, when the initiation may take place at the age of eighteen. In Prussia the required age is twenty five. In England it is twenty one, except in cases where a dispensation has been granted for an earlier age by the Grand or Provincial Grand Master. In Ireland the age must be twenty one, except in cases of dispensation granted by the Grand Master or Grand Lodge. In the United States, the usage is general that the candidate shall not be less than twenty one years of age at the time of his initiation, and no dispensation can issue for conferring the degrees at an earlier period.
This variety in the laws relating to this subject conclusively proves that the precise age has never been determined by any Landmark of the Order. The design and nature of the institution must in this case be our only guide. The speculative character of the society requires that none shall be admitted to its mysteries except those who have reached maturity and discretion; but it is competent for any Grand Lodge to determine for itself what shall be considered to be that age of maturity. Perhaps the best regulation is that adopted by the Grand Lodge of Hamburg. Hence the Masons of this country have very wisely conformed to the provisions of the law on this subject, which prevail in all the States, and have made the age of twenty one the legal one for candidates applying for admission.
ALBERT GALLATIN MACKEY
Born at Charleston, South Carolina, March 12th, 1807. Passed on at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 20th, 1881, at the age of 74 years. Buried at Washington, D.C., June 26th, 1881, with all the solemnity of the Masonic Rites wherein he had long been an active leader. Graduated with honors at the Charleston Medical College, in 1831 gave his attention to the practice of medicine until 1851, but from that time on devoted his time to literary and Masonic efforts. He was Initiated, Passed and Raised in Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841. Shortly thereafter he affiliated with Soloman's Lodge No. 1, Charleston, and was elected Worshipful Master in 1842. From 1842 to 1867 he held the office of Grand Secretary of South Carolina. In 1812 he was advanced and exalted in Capitular Masonry, and served 1855 to 1867 as Grand High Priest of South Carolina. From 1850 to 1868 served as General Grand High Priest. Created a Knight Templar in 1842, elected Eminent Commander 1844. Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty Third and last Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in 1844, and for many years Secretary General of the Supreme Council. Ilis most popular and outstanding Masonic literature were "A Lexicon of Freemasoliry," "Mackey's History of Freemasonry," "Jurisprudence," "Symbolism," and "Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry." These works are recognized and published then out the English speaking world, as works of authority on Freemasonry.
 37 Certain numbers are assigned as the symbolic ages of Masons of various degrees. What are they, and why?
AGE, MASONIC. In all of the Masonic Rites except the York, or American system, a mystical age is appropriated to each degree, and the initiate who has received the degree is said to be of such or such an age. Thus, the age of an Entered Apprentice is said to be three years; that of a Fellow Craft, five; and that of a Master Mason, seven. These ages are not arbitrarily selected, but have reference to the mystical value of members and their relation to the different degrees. Thus, three is the symbol of peace and concord, and has been called in the Pythagorean system the number of perfect harmony, and is appropriated to that degree, which is the initiation into an Order whose fundamental principles are harmony and brotherly love. Five is the symbol of active life, the union of the female principle two and the male principle three, and refers in this way to the active duties of man as a denizen of the world, which constitutes the symbolism of the Fellow Craft's degree; and seven, as a venerable and perfect number, is symbolic of that perfection which is supposed to be attained in the Master's degree. In a way similar to this, all the ages of the other degrees are symbolically and mystically explained. It has already been said that this system does not prevail in the York Rite. It is uncertain whether it ever did and has been lost, or whether it is a modern innovation on the symbolism of Masonry invented for the later Rites. Something like it, however, is to be found in the battery, which still exists in the York Rite, and which, like the Masonic age, is varied in the different degrees.
The Masonic ages are - and it will thus be seen that they are all mystic numbers 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, 27, 63, 81.
38 How is the word "agenda" used in Masonry?
AGENDA. A Latin participle, signifying "things to be done." In Masonry it means small books in which certain virtues or precepts are written, and which it is the duty of all Masons to inculcate and practice. It also applied to the items constituting a program or order of business.
39 - What was the book of the Constitutions of the Ancient Masons called?
AHIMAN REZON. Dr. Mackey says these words are derived from the Hebrew ahim, brothers, manah, to prepare, and ratzon, the will or law; and signifies, therefore literally, "the law of prepared brothers." Others contend that the derivation is from achi man razor., "the opinions of a true and faithful brother." It was the title adopted for their Book of Constitutions by the section which split off from our Grand Lodge about the year
1740, and denominated themselves, by way of distinction, "Ancient Masons."
 40 - To what extent should a Mason extend aid to a worthy distressed brother?
AID AND ASSISTANCE. The duty of aiding and assisting, not only all worthy distressed Master Masons, but their widows and orphans also, "wheresoever dispersed over the face of the globe," is one of the most important obligations that is imposed upon every brother of the "mystic tie" by the whole scope and tenor of the Masonic Institution. The regulations for the exercise of this duty are few, but rational. In the first place, a Master Mason who is in distress has a greater claim, under equal circumstances, to the aid and assistance of his brother, than one who, being in the Order, has not attained that degree, or who is altogether a profane. This is strictly in accordance with the natural instincts of the human heart, which will always prefer a friend to a stranger, or, as it is rather energetically expressed in the language of Long Tom Coffin, "a messmate before a shipmate, a shipmate before a stranger, and a stranger before a dog;" and it is also strictly in accordance with the teaching of the Apostle of the Gentiles, who has said: "As we have opportunity, therefore, let us do good to all men, especially unto them who are of the household." But this exclusiveness is only to be practiced under circumstances which make a selection imperatively necessary. Where the grant of relief to the profane would incapacitate us from granting similar relief to our brother, then must the preference be given to him who is "of the household." But the earliest symbolic lessons of the ritual teach the Mason not to restrict his benevolence within the narrow limits of the Fraternity, but to acknowledge the claims of all men, who need it, to assistance. Inwood has beautifully said, "The humble condition both of property and dress, of penury and want, in which you were received into the Lodge, should make you at all times sensible of the distress of poverty and all you can spare from the call of nature and the due care of your families, should only remain in your possession as a ready sacrifice to the necessities of an unfortunate, distressed brother. Let the distressed cottage feel the warmth of your Masonic zeal and, if possible, exceed even the unabating ardor of Christian charity. At your approach let the orphan cease to weep, and in the sound of your voice let the widow forget her sorrow." Another restriction laid upon this duty of aid and assistance by the obligations of Masonry is that the giver shall not be lavish beyond his means in the disposition of his benevolence. What he bestows must be such as he can give "without material injury to himself or family." No man should wrong his wife or children that he may do a benefit to a stranger or ever a brother. The obligations laid on a Mason to grant aid and assistance to the needy and distressed  seem to be in the following graduations: first, to his family; next, to his brethren; and, lastly, to the world at large.
So far this subject has been viewed in a general reference to that spirit of kindness which should actuate all men, and which it is the object of Masonic teaching to impress on the mind of every Mason as a common duty of humanity, and whose disposition Masonry only seeks to direct and guide. But there is another aspect in which this subject may be considered, namely, in that peculiar and technical one of Masonic aid and assistance due from one Mason to another. Here there is a duty declared, and a correlative right inferred; for if it is the duty of one Mason to assist another, it follows that every Mason has the right to claim that assistance from his brother. It is this duty that the obligations of Masonry are especially intended to enforce; it is this right that they are intended to sustain. The symbolic ritual of Masonry which refers, as, for instance, in the first degree, to the virtue of benevolence refers to it in the general sense of a virtue which all men should practice. But when the Mason reaches the third degree, he discovers new obligations which restrict and define the exercise of this duty of aid and assistance. So far as his obligations control him, the Mason as a Mason, is not legally bound to extend his aid beyond the just claimants in his own Fraternity. To do good to all men is of course inculcated and recommended; to dv good to the household is enforced and made compulsory by legal enactment and sanction.
Now, as there is here, on one side, a duty, and on the other side a right, it is proper to inquire what are the regulations or laws by which this duty is controlled and this right maintained.
The duty to grant and the right to claim relief Masonically is recognized in the following passage of the Old Charges of 1722: "But if you discover him to be a true and genuine brother, you are to respect him accordingly; and if he is in want, you must relieve him if you can, or else direct him how he may be relieved. You must employ him some days, or else recommend him to be employed. But you are not charged to do beyond your ability; only to prefer a poor brother, who is a good man and true, before any other people in the same circumstances." This written law agrees in its conditions and directions, so far as it goes, with the unwritten law of the Order, and from the two we may deduce the following principles:
1. The applicant must be a Master Mason. In 1722, the charitable benefits of Masonry were extended, it is true, to Entered Apprentices, and an Apprentice was recognized, in the language of the law, as "a true and genuine brother." But this was because at that time only the first degree was conferred in subordinate Lodges. Fellow  Crafts and Master Masons being made in the Grand Lodge. Hence the great mass of the Fraternity consisted of Apprentices, and many Masons never proceeded any further. But the second and third degrees are now always conferred in the subordinate Lodges, and very few initiates voluntarily stop short of the Master's degree. Hence, the mass of the Fraternity now consists of Master Masons, and the law which formerly applied to Apprentices is, under our present organization, made applicable only to those who have become Master Masons.
2. The applicant must be worthy. We are to presume that every Mason is "a good man and true" until the Lodge which has jurisdiction over him has pronounced to the contrary. Every Mason who is "in good standing," that is, who is a regularly contributing member of a Lodge, is to be considered as "worthy," in the technical sense of the term. An expelled, a suspended, or a non affiliated Mason, does not meet the required condition of "a regularly contributing member." Such a Mason is therefore not "worthy," and is not entitled to Masonic assistance.
3. The giver is not expected to exceed his ability in the amount of relief. The written law says, "you are not charged to do beyond your ability," the ritual says, that your relief must be "without material injury to yourself or family." The principle is the same in both.
4. The widow and orphans of a Master Mason have the claims of the husband and father extended to them. The written law says nothing explicitly on this point, but the unwritten or ritualistic law expressly declares that it is our duty "to contribute to the relief of a worthy, distressed brother, his widow and orphans."
5. And lastly, in granting relief or assistance, the Mason is to be preferred to the profane. He must be placed "before any other people in the same circumstances." These are the laws which regulate the doctrine of Masonic aid and assistance. They are often charged by the enemies of Masonry with a spirit of exclusiveness. But it has been shown that they are in accordance with the exhortation of the Apostle, who would do good "especially to those who are of the household," and they have the warrant of the law of nature; for every one will be ready to say. with that kindest hearted of men, Charles Lamb, "I can feel for all indifferently, but I cannot feel for all alike. I can be a friend to a worthy man, who, upon another account, cannot be my mate or fellow. I cannot like all people alike." And so as Masons, while we should be charitable to all persons in need or distress, there are only certain ones who can claim the aid and assistance of the Order, or of its disciples, under the positive sanction of the Masonic law.
 41 - By what three elements is a Mason proved?
AIR. Every human being at his birth becomes subject to the action of three elements. He comes out of water, passes through the air, and when he arrives at maturity, he is under the influence of fire. It is only at his death that he can participate of the fourth element (the earth). When he is initiated into the mysteries of Masonry, he is proved by the three elements of water, air, and fire.
42 - In what sense is the word "alarm" used in Masonry?
ALARM. The verb, "to alarm," signifies, in Freemasonry, "to give notice of the approach of some one desiring admission." Thus, "to alarm the Lodge," is to inform the Lodge that there is some one without who is seeking entrance. As a noun, the word "alarm" has two significations. 1. An alarm is a warning given by the Tiler, or other appropriate officer, by which he seeks to communicate with the interior of the Lodge or Chapter. In this sense the expression so often used, "an alarm at the door," simply signifies that the officer outside has given notice of his desire to communicate with the Lodge.
2. An alarm is also the peculiar mode in
which this notice is to be given. As to the derivation of the
word, a writer in Notes and Queries ingeniously conjectures that
it comes from the old French a l'arme, which in modern times is
aux armes, "to arms." The legal meaning of to alarm
is not to frighten, but to make one aware of the necessity of
defense or protection. And this is precisely the Masonic signification
of the word.
43 - What is the sacred book of the Mohammedans called?
ALCORAN. The sacred book of the Mohammedans, or rather a sacred book, for they recognize the old Hebrew Scriptures as of greater authority. The Alcoran, commonly called the Koran, contains the revelations made to Mohammed, his doctrines and precepts. In a Masonic Lodge of Mohammedans it should lay on the altar as the Bible does in a Lodge of Christians.
44 - Has a woman ever been made a Mason?
ALDWORTH, THE HON. MRS. This lady received, about the year 1735. the first and second degrees of Freemasonry in Lodge No. 44, at Doneraile, in Ireland. The circumstances connected with this singular initiation were first published in 1807, at Cork, and subsequently republished by Spencer, the celebrated Masonic bibliophile, in London. It may be observed, before proceeding to glean from this work the narrative of her initiation, that the authenticity of all the circumstances was confirmed on their first publication by an eye witness to the transaction.
The Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger was born about the year 1713, and was the youngest child and only daughter of the Right Hon. Arthur  St. Leger, first Viscount Doneraile, of Ireland, who died in 1727, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the brother of our heroine. Subsequently to her initiation into the mysteries of Freemasonry she married Richard Aldsworth, Esq., of Newmarket, in the county of Cork Lodge No. 44, in which she was initiated, was, in some sort, an aristocratic Lodge, consisting principally of the gentry and most respectable and wealthy inhabitants of the country around Doneraile. The communications were usually held in the town, but during the Mastership of Lord Doneraile, under whom his sister was initiated, the meetings were often held at his Lordship's residence.
It was during one of these meetings at Doneraile House that this female initiation took place, the story of which Spencer, in the memoir to which we have referred, relates in the following words:
"It happened on this particular occasion
that the Lodge was held in a room separated from another, as is
often the case, by stud and brickwork. The young lady, being giddy
and thoughtless and determined to gratify her curiosity, made
her arrangements accordingly, and, with a pair of scissors (as
she herself related to the mother of our informant), removed a
portion of a brick from the wall, and placed herself so as to
command a full view of everything which occurred in the next room;
so placed, she witnessed the two first degrees in Masonry, which
was the extent of the proceedings of the Lodge on that night.
Becoming aware, from what she heard, that the brethren were about
to separate, for the first time she felt tremblingly alive to
the awkwardness and danger of her situation, and began to consider
how she could retire without observation. She became nervous and
agitated, and nearly fainted, but so far recovered herself as
to be fully aware of the necessity of withdrawing as quickly as
possible; in the act of doing so, being in the dark, she stumbled
against and overthrew something, said to be a chair or some ornamental
piece of furniture. The crash was loud; and the Tiler, who was
on the lobby or landing on which opened the doors both of the
Lodge room and that where the honorable Miss St. Leger was, gave
the alarm, burst open the door, and with a light in one hand and
a drawn sword in the other, appeared to the now terrified and
fainting lady. He was soon joined by the members of the Lodge
present, and luckily; for it is asserted that but for the prompt
appearance of her brother, Lord Doneraile, and other steady members,
her life would have fallen a sacrifice to what was then esteemed
her crime. The first care of his Lordship was to resuscitate the
unfortunate lady without alarming the house, and endeavor to learn
from her an explanation of what had occurred; having done so,
many of the members being furious at the transaction, she was
placed under guard of the Tiler and a member, in the room where
she was found. The members reassembled and  deliberated as
to what, under the circumstances, was to be done, and over two
long hours she could hear the angry discussion and her death deliberately
proposed and seconded. At length the good sense of the majority
succeeded in calming, in some measure, the angry and irritated
feelings of the rest of the members, when, after much had been
said and many things proposed, it was resolved to give her the
option of submitting to the Masonic ordeal to the extent she had
witnessed (Fellow Craft), and if she refused, the brethren were
again to consult. Being waited on to decide, Miss St. Leger, exhausted
and terrified by the storminess of the debate, which she could
not avoid partially hearing, and yet, notwithstanding all, with
a secret pleasure, gladly and unhesitatingly accepted the offer.
She was accordingly initiated." Mrs., or, as she was appropriately
called, Sister Aldsworth, lived many years after, but does not
seem ever to have forgotten the lessons of charity and fraternal
love which she received on her unexpected initiation into the
esoteric doctrines of the Order. "Placed as she was,"
says the memoir we have quoted, "by her marriage with Mr.
Aldsworth, at the head of a very large fortune, the poor, in general,
had good reason to record her numerous and bountiful acts of kindness;
nor were these accompanied with ostentation - far from it. It
has been remarked of her, that her custom was to seek out bashful
misery and retiring poverty, and with a well directed liberality,
soothe many a bleeding heart."
45 - What is the name of God in the Mohammedan religion?
ALLAH. The Arabic name of God. The Alcoran describes his character and attributes thus: "He alone is self existent; has no rival; is from everlasting to everlasting; fills the universe with his presence; is the center in which all things unite, as well the visible as the invisible; is infinite; Almighty, all wise, all merciful, tender hearted; and his decrees are unchangeable."
46 - What effect does non affiliation have upon the allegiance of a Mason to the fraternity?
ALLEGIANCE. The relation which a Mason bears to his Lodge is of a different nature from that which connects him with the Order. It is in some degree similar to that political relation which jurists have called "local allegiance," or the allegiance which a man gives to the country or the sovereign in whose territories and under whose protection he resides. This allegiance is founded on the doctrine that where there is protection there should be subjection, and that subjection should in turn receive protection. It may be permanent or temporary. A removal from the territory cancels the allegiance, Which will again be contracted towards the sovereign of the new domicile to which the individual may have removed. Now this is  precisely the relation which exists between a Mason and his Lodge. The Lodge grants him its protection; that is, from his membership in it he derives his rights of visit, of relief, of burial, and all the other prerogatives which inure, by custom or law, to the active members of Lodges, and which are actually the results of member ship. In return for this, he gives it his allegiance; he acknowledges obedience to its By Laws, and he contributes to its revenues by his annual or quarterly dues. But he may at any time dissolve this allegiance to any particular Lodge, and contract it with another. As the denizen of a country cancels his allegiance by abandoning its protection and removing to another territory, the Mason may with draw his relations to one Lodge and unite with another. But he still continues an affiliated Mason, only his affiliation is with another body.
But the denizen who removes from one country may not, by subsequent residence, give his allegiance to another. He may become a cosmopolite, bearing local allegiance to no particular sovereign. All that follows from this is, that he acquires no right of protection; for, if he gives no subjection, he can ask for no protection.
Now this is precisely the case with an unaffiliated Mason. Having taken his demit from one Lodge, he has of course lost its protection; and, having united with no other, he can claim protection from none. He has forfeited all those rights which are derived from membership. He has dissevered all connections between himself and the Lodge organization of the Order, and by this act has divested himself of all the prerogatives which belonged to him as a member of that organization. Among these are the right of visit, of pecuniary aid, and of Masonic burial. When he seeks to enter the door of a Lodge it must be closed upon him, for the right to visit belongs only to affiliated Masons. Whenever he seeks for Lodge assistance, he is to be refused, because the funds of the Lodge are not to be distributed among those who refuse to aid, by their individual contributions, in the formation of similar funds in other Lodges. Nor can he expect to be accompanied to his last resting place by his brethren; for it is a settled law, that no Mason can be buried with the ceremonies of the Order, except upon his express request, previously made to the Master of the Lodge of which he is a member.
47 - What is the symbolism of the All Seeing Eye?
ALL SEEING EYE. An important symbol of the Supreme Being, borrowed by the Freemasons from the nations of antiquity. Both the Hebrews and the Egyptians appear to have derived its use from that natural inclination of figurative minds to select an organ as the symbol of the function which it is intended peculiarly to discharge. Thus, the foot was often adopted as the symbol of swiftness, the arm of strength, and the hand of fidelity. On the game principle, the  open eye was selected as the symbol of watchfulness, and the eye of God as the symbol of divine watchfulness and care of the universe. The use of the symbol in this sense is repeatedly to be found in the Hebrew writers. Thus, the Psalmist says (Ps. xxxiv. 15): "The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry," which explains a subsequent passage (Ps. cxxi. 4) in which it is said: "Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep." On the same principle, the Egyptians represented Osiris, their chief deity, by the symbol of an open eye, and placed this hieroglyphic of him in all their temples. His symbolic name, on the monuments, was represented by the eye accompanying a throne, to which was sometimes added an abbreviated figure of the god, and sometimes what has been called a hatchet, but which, I consider, may as correctly be supposed to be a representation of a square.
The All Seeing Eye may then be considered as a symbol of God manifested in his omnipresence - his guardian and preserving character - to which Solomon alludes in the Book of Proverbs (xv. 3), when he says: "The eyes of Jehovah are in every place, beholding (or, as it might be more faithfully translated, watching) the evil and the good." It is a symbol of the Omnipresent Deity.
48 - What allurements does Masonry hold out?
ALLUREMENTS. Masonry is one of the most sublime and perfect institutions that ever was formed for the advancement of the happiness and general good of mankind, creating, in all its varieties, universal benevolence and brotherly love. It holds out allurements so captivating as to inspire the brotherhood with emulation to deeds of glory, such as must command, throughout the world, veneration and applause, and such as must entitle those who perform them to dignity and respect. It teaches us those useful, wise, and instructive doctrines upon which alone true happiness is founded; and at the same time affords those easy paths by which we attain the rewards of virtue; it teaches us the duties which we owe to our neighbor, never to injure him in any one situation, but to conduct ourselves With justice and impartiality; it bids us not to divulge the mystery to the public; and it orders us to be true to our trust, and above all meanness and dissimulation, and in all our vocations to perform religiously that which we ought to do.
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