The Hebrew is pronounced, Mem, which signifies water in motion, having for its hieroglyph a waving line, referring to the surface of the water. As a numeral, M stands for 1000. In Hebrew its numerical value is 40. The sacred name of Deity, applied to this letter, is Meborach, and in Latin Benedictus, meaning that Blessed One.
In the Tenth Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite we are instructed that certain traitors fled to "Maacha, King of Cheth," by whom they were delivered up to King Solomon on his sending for them. In First Kings II, 39, we find it recorded that two of the servants of Shimei fled from Jerusalem to "Achish, son of Maachah king of Gath." There can be little doubt that the carelessness of the early copyists of the Ritual led to the double error of putting Cheth for Gath and of supposing that Maacha was its king instead of its king's father.
The manuscripts of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, too often copied by unlearned persons, show many such corruptions of Hebrew names, which modern researches must eventually correct. Delaunay, in his Thuileur, 1813, makes him King of Tyre, calls him Mahakah, and adds a Latin word, Compressus, as further explanation, the meaning evidently being to bring together.
Masonic writers have generally given to this word the meaning of "is smitten," deriving it probably from the Hebrew verb macha, to smite. Others, again, think it is the word mak, rottenness, and suppose that it means "he is rotten." Both derivations are, in Brother Mackey's opinion, incorrect. Mac is a constituent part of the word macbenac, which is the substitute Master's Word in the French Rite, and which is interpreted by the French ritualists as meaning "he lives in the son." But such a derivation can find no support in any known Hebrew root. Another interpretation must be sought. Doctor Mackey believed there is evidence, circumstantial at least, to show that the word was, if not an invention of the Sentient or Dermott Freemasons, at least adopted by them in distinction from the one used by the Moderns, which latter is the word now in use in the United States of America.
Brother Mackey was disposed to attribute the introduction of the word into Freemasonry to the adherents of the House of Stuart, who sought in every way to make the Institution of Freemasonry a political instrument in their schemes for the restoration of their exiled monarch. Thus the old phrase, "the Widow's Son," was applied by them to James II, who was the son of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. So, instead of the old Master's word which had hitherto been used, they invented macbenac out of the Gaelie, which to them was, on recount of their Highland supporters, almost a sacred language in the place of Hebrew. Now, in Gaelic, Mac is son, and benach is blessed, from the active verb oeannaichy to bless.
The latest dictionary pushed by the Highland
Society give this example:
"Benach De Righ Albane, Alexander, Mac Alexander," etc., that is, Bless the King of Scotland, Alexander, son of Alexander, etc. Therefore we find, without any of those distortions to which etymologists so often recur, that macbenac means in Gaelic the blessed son. This word the Stuart Freemasons applied to their idol, the Pretender, the son of Charles I.
This word is capable of at least two interpretations.
1. A significant word in the Third Degree according to the French Rite and some other Rituals (see Mac).
2. In the Order of the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City, the Recipiendary, or Novice, is called Macbenac.
A heroic family, whose patriotism and valor form bright pictures in the Jewish annals. The name is generally supposed to be derived from the letters M. C. B. I. which were inscribed upon their banners Wng the initials of the following words in the Hebrew sentence, Mi Camocha, Baalim, Jehovah, meaning, Who is like unto thee among the gods, O Jehovah. The Hebrew sentence has been appropriated in some of the advanced Degrees as a significant term.
MACCALLA, CLIFFORD P.
Initiated in Concordia Lodge No. 67 at Philadelphia, 1869; was Worshipful Master in 1874; accepted position of Secretary in 1876 and served twelve years. Brother MacCalla was elected Junior Grand Warden of Pennsylvania in 1882, Senior Grand Warden in 1884, Deputy Grand Master in 1886 and Grand Master in 1888. For many years he was Editor of the Reystone, a Masonic journal. He wrote a historical sketch of Concordia Lodge in Philadelphia, a Life of Daniel Coxe and many essays on Freemasonry in America. He discovered the Secretary's ledger of Saint John's Lodge dating from June 24, 1731, to June, 1738 (see Transactionz, Quatuor Coronati Lodge, volume iii, page 134).
Du Cange (in his Glossarium) gives this as one of the Middle Age Latin words for orison, deriving it from maceria, a wail The word is now never employed.
Du Cange, Slossarzum, defines Macio, Mario, or Machio, on the authority of Isidore, as Maçon, latomus, a mason, a constructor of walls, from machina, the machines on which they stood to work on account of the height of the walls. He gives Maço also.
MACKENZIE, KENNETH R. H.
His favorite pen name was Cryptonymus, a Latin word meaning One whose name is hidden. Editor of The Royal Masonic Cyclopedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and Biography, published in London in 1877, by Brother John Hogg, Paternoster Row. He was one of the founders of the Rosicrucian Society in England (see Rosicrucianism).
MACKEY, ALBERT GALLATIN
The American Masonic historian. He was born at Charleston, South Carolina, March 12, 1807. This scholarly Brother lived to the age of seventy-four years. He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, June 20, 1881, and was buried at Washington, District of Columbia, Sunday, June 26, with all the solemnity of the Masonic Rites wherein he had long been an active leader. From 1834, when he was graduated with honors at the Charleston Medical College, until 1854 he gave attention to the practice of his profession, but from that time on literary and Masonic labors engrossed his efforts. Doctor Mackey was a Union adherent during the Civil War and in July, 1865, President Johnson appointed him Collector of the Port. In a contest for senatorial honors Brother Mackey was defeated by Senator Sawyer. Doctor Mackey removed to Washington. District of Columbia, in l870.
Doctor Mackey was Initiated, Passed and Raised in Saint Andrews Lodge No. 10, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1841. Shortly thereafter he affiliated with Solomon's Lodge No. 1, also of Charleston, and was elected Worshipful Master in December, 1842. From 1842 until 1867 he held the office of Grand Secretary and during this period prepared all the reports of the Foreign Correspondence Committee of the Grand Lodge. In 1851 he was a founder member of Landmark Lodge No. 76. During the winter of 1841-2 he was advanced and exalted in Capitular Freemasonry; elected High Priest in December, 1844; and also elected Deputy Grand High Priest in 1848 and successively re-selected until 1855. From 1855 to 1867 he was each year elected as Grand High Priest of his State. Elected in 1859 to the office of General Grand High Priest, he continued in that position until 1868. Created a Knight Templar in South Carolina Commandery No. 1, in 1842, he was elected Eminent Commander in 1844, later being honored as a Past Grand Warden of the Grand Encampment of the United States. Crowned a Sovereign Grand Inspector General of the Thirty-third and last Degree in 1844, he was for many years Secretary-General of the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
As a contributor to the literature and science of Freemasonry, Doctor Mackey's labors have been more extensive than those of any other in America or in Europe. In 1845 he published his first Masonic work, entitled A Lexicon of Freemasonry; in 1851 he published his second work entitled Tame True Mystic Tie. Then followed The A11iman Rezon of South Carolina, 1852; Principles of Masonic Laun, 1856; Book of tile Chapter, 1858; Text-Book of Masonic Jurisprudence; 1859; History of freemasonry in South Carolina, 1861, Manual of the Lodge, 1869; Cryptic Masonry, 1877; Symbolism of Freemasonry, and Masonic Ritual, 1869; Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 1874; and Masonic Parliamentary Law, 1875. Doctor Mackey also contributed freely to Masonic periodicals and edited several of them with conspicuous ability. In 1849 he established and edited the Southern and Western Masonic Miscellany for five years. In 1857 he undertook the publication of the Masonic Quarterly Review which continued for two years. Then he was invited to assume editorial charge of a department in the American Freemason which he accepted in July, 1859, and he held this position for one year. He was solicited to take charge of a department in the Masonic Trowel, his first article appearing in the September number of 1865, and he wrote for this publication for nearly three years. In October, 1871, Doctor Mackey again published a Masonic magazine of his own, Mackey's Nationd Freemason. Although a periodical of great merit, after three years it was discontinued. In January, 1875, Doctor Mackey became one of the editors of the Voice of Masonry, and for over four years was a constant contributor to that periodical, when failing health necessitated his giving up this work.
After Doctor Mackey located at Washington, District of Columbia, he affiliated with Lafayette Lodge No. 19, Lafayette Chapter No. 5, and Washington Commandery No. 1.
The funeral services in Washington in 1881 were begun at All Souls Church, Unitarian, of which Doctor Mackey was a member, by the pastor and were followed by the ceremonies of a Lodge of Sorrow, Rose Croix Chapter, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, and were in charge of the venerable General Albert Pike and his associate officers. General Albert Pike wrote a touching and ape precative message at the time of the death of Doctor Mackey, which was sent out officially by the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction in which the various Masonic Bodies were instructed to "drape in black the altars and working tools and the Brethren will wear the proper badge of mourning during the space of sixty days."
The following Memorial was presented by a Committee headed by Brother Charles F. Stansbury at a Special Communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia:
Our illustrious Brother, Albert Gallatin Mackey, is no more! He died at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, on the 20th day of June, 1881, at the venerable age of 74, and was buried at Washington on Sunday June 26, 1881, with the highest honors of the Craft, ah Rites and Orders of Masonry uniting in the last sad services over his remains. The announcement of his death has carried a genuine sentiment of sorrow wherever Freemasonry is known. His ripe scholarship, his profound knowledge of Masonic law and usage, his broad views of Masonic philosophy, his ceaseless and invaluable literary labors in the service of the Order, his noble ideal of its character and mission, as well as his genial personal qualities and his lofty character, had united to make him personally known and vividly respected and beloved by the Masonic world. While this Grand Lodge shares in the common sorrow of the Craft everywhere at this irreparable loss she can properly lay claim to a more intimate and peculiar sense of bereavement, inasmuch as our illustrious Brother had been for many years an active member of this Body Chairman of the Committee on Jurisprudence, and an advisor ever ready to assist our deliberations with his knowledge and counsel. In testimony of our affectionate respect for his memory the Grand Lodge jewels, and insignia will be appropriately draped, and its members near the usual badge of mourning for thirty days.
A memorial page of our proceedings will also be dedicated to the honor of his name. We extend to his family the assurance of our sincere and respectful sympathy, and direct that an attested copy of this Minute be transmitted to them.
In the eulogy over Doctor Mackey, delivered by Past Grand Master Henry Buist, of Georgia, before the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, he said of the Doctor: He was a fearless and gifted speaker; his language was courteous and manner dignified; and occasionally, in his earnestness to maintain what he conceived to be right, he became animated and eloquent. Positive in his convictions, he was bold in their advocacy. His course of action once determined on, supported by an approving conscience no fear or disfavor or discomfiture could swerve him from his fixed purpose. Whatever was the emergency, he was always equal to it. Where others doubted. he was confident; where others faltered, he was immovable; where others queried, he affirmed. He was faithful to every public and Masonic duty. Treachery found no place in his character. He never betrayed a trust. He was eminently sincere and loyal to his friends, and those who were most intimately associated with him learned to appreciate him the most. He was generous and frank in his impulses, and cherished malice toward none, and charity for all. His monument is in the hearts of those who knew him longest and best. He is no longer of this earth. His work among men is ended; his earthly record is complete.
The following is substantially from Renning's Cydopedia of Freemasonry: The Norman-French word for mason as the Operative Mason in early days was called "le rnaçon and this was corrupted into maccon, maccouyn, masoun, masouyn, messouyn, and even mageon. The word seems to come from maçonner, which had both its operative meaning and derivative meaning of conspiring, in 1238, and which again comes from mansio, a word of classic use. The word mason, as it appears to us, is clear evidence of the development of the operative Gilds through the Norman-French artificers of the Conquest, who carried the Operative Gilds, as it were, back to Latin terminology, and to a Roman origin,
In addition to the above paragraph by the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, see Mason, Macemo and Macio.
MAÇON DANS LA VOIE DROITE
French, meaning The Mason in the Right Way. The second grade of the Hermetic system of Montpellier (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).
MAÇON DU SECRET
French, meaning The Mason of the Secret. The sixth grade of the reformed Rite of Baron Tschoudy, and the seventh in the reformed rite of Saint Martin (Thory, ActaLatomorum i, page 321).
MAÇON, ECOSSAIS, MAITRE
These French words are explained under their English equivalents (see Mason, Scottish Master).
Low Latin, signifying a Mason, and found in documents of the fourteenth century.
A French word signifying a Female Mason, that is to say, a woman who has received the Degrees of the Rite of Adoption. It is a very convenient word. The formation of the English language might permit the use of the equivalent word Masoness, if custom would sanction it.
The Third Degree in Cagliostro's Egyptian Rite of Adoption.
Third grade of the Maçonnerie d' Adoption.
Du Cange gives citations from documents of the fourteenth century, where this word is used as signifying to build.
French for Red Freemasonry. The designation of the four advanced grades of the French Rite. Bazot says that the name comes from the color worn in the fourth grade.
Dutch Masonic Clubs, somewhat like unto the English Lodges of Instruction with more, perhaps, of the character of a Club. Renning's Cyclopedia says "there were about nineteen of these associations in the principal towns of Holland in 1860."
"A General History, Cyclopedia, and Dictionary of Freemasonry," containing some 300 engravings, by Robert Macoy, 33 , published in New York, which has passed through a number of editions. It was originally founded on A Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, by Dr. George Oliver. Brother Macoy has occupied the prominent position of Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, and that of Grand Recorder of the State Grand Commandery of the Order of the Temple, Knights Templar.
Greek, she great world. The visible system of worlds; the outer world or universe. It is opposed to Microcosm, the little world, as in man. It has been used as the Macric soul in opposition to the Micric animal life, and as the soul of the universe as opposed to the soul of a single world or being. A subject of much note to the Rosicrucians in the study of the Mysterium Magnum.
Latin of the Middle Ages for a mason. Du Cange quotes a Computum of the year 1324, in which it is said that the work was done "per manum Petri, maczonis de Lagnicio," meaning "by the hand of Peter, a mason of Lagnicio."
L'Action Républicaine Lodge, from June 25,1913, at Diego Suarez, and La France Australe, from July 20, 1903, at Tananarivo, are subject both to the Grand Orient of France. Three others, La Fraternite Universale, from 1917, at Ambositra, Imerina, from 1903, at Tananarivo and Les Trois Freres, The Three Brothers, at Majungo, are controlled by the Grand Lodge of France. Madagascar is an island, under the French Government, is 975 miles long, with some three million inhabitants, and is in the Indian Ocean, 230 miles from the east coast of Africa.
A technical word signifying initiated into Freemasonry (see Make).
Madmen are specially designated in the oral
law as disqualified for initiation (see Qualifications).
A presidency of British India. The first Lodge in Southern India was established at Madras. Others were opened in 1765 and in the following year Captain Edmond Pascal was appointed Provincial Grand Master for Madras and its Dependencies. A Provincial Grand Lodge was established in 1781 by the Athol Grand Lodge of England but after about seven years the state of warfare round about Madras caused its decline. Unity among the Brethren in Southern India was finally achieved by the appointment of Brigadier-General Horn as "Provincial Grand Master for the Coast of Coromandel, the Presidency of Madras and parts adjacent." The older Lodges had all ceased work when in 1786 the Carnatic Military Lodge was established at Arcot. The early attempts of the Freneh to plant Freemasonry in Madras were even less successful than those of the English. The first Lodge, La Fraternite Cosmopolite, meaning in French World wide Fraternity, was chartered in 1786, but after Iying dormant for some time finally ceased to exist. The Grand Lodge of Scotland has chartered many surviving and successful Lodges in Madras and other parts of India (see Bombay and India).
Sometimes spelled Maffia, a name for a Sicilian secret society active early in the nineteenth century, perhaps more usually the title is employed to mean the persons impatient and contemptuous of constitutional processes of law who reserve vengeance for execution by themselves. The Chief of Police of New Orleans was killed, following the severity of his course in hunting the murderers of an Italian. Several Mafiusi were implicated, six were acquitted but the verdict was credited to the fears of the jury, and the gaol was entered by a mob and eleven prisoners were lynched, March 14, 1891 (see Carbonari, Camorra, and Secret Societies).
The earliest Masonic magazine was published at Leipsic in 1738 and named Der Freimaurer. The second, in 1742, was Der bedachtiae Frei7naurer, at Hamburg, and then the Aufmerksamn Freimaurer, 1743, at Gorlitz, according to Brother Woodford (Renning's CycZopedia). In 1783 theFreimaurerzeitung appeared at Berlin, having only a short existence of six numbers. The Journal fur Freimaurer, which appeared in 1784 at Vienna, had a longer life of some three years. In England, the first work of this kind was The Freemasons Magazine or General and Complete Library, begun in 1793, and continued until 1798. In Ireland, in 1792, the Sentimental and Masonic Magazine appeared and ran to seven volumes (1792-5). In France the Miroir de laverite seems to have been issued 1800-2, followed by Nermes in 1808. In England the Free7naso7~s Quarterly Review commenced in 1834 and was continued until 1849, followed by the Freemasons Quarterly Magazine in 1853, which lived until 1858. In 1873 a new Masonic Mapazine was issued, but it had not a very long existence. Of American Masonic magazines the earliest is the Freemasons Magazine and General Miscellany, published at Philadelphia in 1811. An old and constant periodical devoted to Freemasonry was the Freemasonry's Monthly Magazine, published by Charles W. Moore, at Boston. It was established in the year 1842 (see Literature).
The ancient Greek historians so term the hereditary priests among the Persians and Medians. The word is derived from mog or amp, signifying Priest in the Pehlevi language. The Illuminati first introduced the word into Freemasonry, and employed it in the nomenclature of their Degrees to signify men of superior wisdom.
MAGI, THE THREE
The "Wise Men of the East" who came to Jerusalem, bringing gifts to the infant Jesus. The traditional names of the three are Melchior, an old man, with a long beard, offering gold; Jasper, a beardless youth, rho offers frankincense; Balthazar, a black or Moor, with a large spreading beard, who tenders myrrh. The patron saints of travelers. "Tradition fixed their number at three, probably in allusion to the three races springing from the sons of Noah. The Empress Helena caused their corpses to be transported to Milan from Constantinople. Frederick Barbarossa carried them to Cologne, the place of their special glora as the Three Kings of Cologne." Yonge. The three principal officers ruling the Society of the Rosicrucians are styled Magi.
The idea that any connection exists between Freemasonry and magic is to be attributed to the French writers, especially to Ragon, who gives many pages of his Masonic Orthodozy to the subject of Masonic magic; and still more to Alphonse Louis Constant, who has written three large volumes on the History of Magic, on the Ritual and Dogma of the Higher Magic, and on the Key of the Grand Mysteries, in all of which he seeks to trace an intimate connection between the Masonic mysteries and the science of magic (see Levi, Eliphas). Ragon designates this sort of Freemasonry by the name of Occult Freemasonry But he loosely confounds magic with the magism of the ancient Persians, the medieval philosophy and modern magnetism, all of which, as identical sciences, were engaged in the investigation of the nature of man. the mechanism of his thoughts, the faculties of his soul, his power over nature, and the essence of the occult virtues of all things.
Magism, he says, is to be found in the Sentences of Zoroaster, in the Hymns of Orpheus, in the Invocations of the Hierophants, and in the Symbols of Pythagoras; it is reproduced in the Philosophy of Agrippa and of Cardan, and is recognized under the name of Magic in the marvelous results of magnetism. Cagliostro, it is well known, mingled with his Spurious Freemasonry the Superstitions of Magic and the Operations of Animal Magnetism. But the writers who have sought to establish a scheme of Magical Freemasonry refer almost altogether to the supposed power of mystical names or words, which they say is common to both Freemasonry and magic. It is certain that on omatology, or the science of names, forms a very interesting part of the investigations of the higher Freemasonry, and it is only in this way that any connection can be created between the two sciences. Much light, it must be confessed, is thrown on many of the mystical names in the advanced Degrees by the dogmas of magic; and hence magic furnishes a curious and interesting study for the Freemason (see Magic Squares and Alchemy).
Founded in New York City on September 29, 1913, by Brother Frank C. Higgins, for the study of Masonic symbolism (see American Freemason, November, 1913, and Miscellanea Latomorum, volume i, pages 63 and 128, new series).
MAGICIANS, SOCIETY OF THE
A society founded at Florence, which became a division of the Brothers of Rose Croix. They wore in their Chapters the habit of members of the Inquisition. This must not be confused with a society of the same na ne but not claiming to be exclusively Masonic in the United States.
A magic square is a series of numbers arranged in an equal number of cells constituting a square figure, the enumeration of all of whose columns, vertically, horizontally and diagonally, wilt give the same sum. The Oriental philosophers, and especially the Jewish Talmudists, have indulged in many fanciful speculations in reference to these magic squares, many of which were considered as talismans. The accompanying figure of nine squares containing the nine digits so arranged as to make fifteen when counted in every way, was of peculiar import.
There was no talisman more sacred than this among the Orientalists, when arranged as in Figure 1-6. Thus designed, they called it by the name of the planet Saturn, ZaHaL, because the sum of the 9 digits in the square was equal to 45 (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8 +g) which is the numerical value of the letters in the word ZaHaL, in the Arabic alphabet. The talmudists also esteemed it as a sacred talisman because 15 is the numerical value of the letters of the word JaH, which is one of the forms of the Tetragrammaton.
The Hermetic Philosophers called these magic squares Tables of the Planets, and attributed to them many occult virtues. The Table of Saturn consisted of 9 squares, and has Just been given. The Table of Jupiter consisted of 16 squares of numbers, whose total value is 136, and the sum of them added, horizontally, perpendicularly, and diagonally, in rows, is always 34; as in Figure 3. So the Table of Mars consists of 25 squares, of the Sun of 36, of Venus of 49, of Mercury of 64, and of the Moon of 81. These magic squares and their values have been used in the symbolism of numbers in some of the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry.
This subject should not be dismissed as a purely imaginative study. The matter has for many years engaged the attention of mathematicians of the highest quality. The Magic Square has been worn as an emblem or talisman insuring good luck to the possessor and evidently it formed an essential part in the early symbolism connected with the Craft. That singular picture by Albrecht Durer of the sixteenth century, Malancolia, shows a Magic Square with many other symbols easily recognized by members of the Masonic institution. The history of the Magie Square goes back hundreds of years and there has been undoubtedly through this period a superstitious, as vrell as a scientific, esteem for this device. They have not been worked out to their present perfection in any other than by systematic methods. The earliest known writer on the subject was a Greek, Emanuel Moscopulus, who flourished in the fourth or fifth century. Since that time there have been many laborers upon this work.
One of the very interesting of these Magic Squares is referred to above by Doctor Mackey. This occurs in a book by Agrippa (De Occulta Philosophie, logo) and is quoted on page 279 of George Falkener's Gaines Ancient arid Moderns By first arrangement the numerals from 1 to 16 in four rows as in Figure 4 it will be seen that by leaving the numerals unchanged at each corner of the large square, namely 1, 4, 16, and 13, and also at the inner square of 6, 7, 10, and 11, and substituting the other pairs of numerals, reversing them at the time, we have in Figure 5, this remarkable Magic Square reversed, which Brother Mackey has called the Table of Jupiter. The combinations of this figure are surprising, amounting to fifty-six arrangements, each totaling thirty-four. The four horizontals, as 1+15+14+4=34, 12+6+7+9=34, etc; and the four perpendicular columns, as 1+12+8+13 = 34, and 15+6+10+3=34, etc.; the diagonals,1+6+11+16= 34, and4+7+10+13=34; the diamonds, 1+7+16+ 10=34, and 4+11+13+6=34; the squares, 1+4+ 16+13=34, and 6+7+11+10=34; the oblongs, 15+ 14+2+3 =34, 12+9+5+8=34, and the romboids, 1+15+16+2=34, and 4+9+13+8=34, etc.
The method of working out a Magic Square with an uneven number of cells was suggested by De la Loubere. The several steps may be considered as follows: In assigning consecutive numbers, proceed in an oblique direction up and to the right as 4, 5, 6, as in Figure 6. When this would carry a number out of the Magic Square, write that number in the cell at the opposite end of the column or row, as shown by the numbers in the margin of Figure 6. When the application of the first of these rules in the present paragraph would place a number in a cell already occupied, write the new number in the cell beneath the one last filled. For instance, the cell above and to the right of 3 being occupied, 4 is written under 3. Treat the marginal square at the upper nght-hand corner marked x as an occupied cell and apply the rule given in the last sentence. Begin by putting 1 in the top cell of the middle column. A comparison of Figure 6 will show that it is a reflection of Figure 1 given by Doctor Mackey.
One of the most successful of all students of the subject unquestionably was Brother Benjamin Franklin. Two of his efforts, an 8x8 and a 16x16, are today unsurpassed as purely remarkably successful attempts at the making of Magic Squares. A communication to an English friend by Brother Franklin appears in the work entitled Letters and Papers on Philosophical Subjects by Benjamin Franklin, printed in 1769. This letter is in part as follows:
According to your request I now send you the arithmetical curiosity of which this is the history. Being one day in the country at the house of our common friend, the late learned Mr. Logan, he showed me a folio French book filled with magic squares, wrote, if I forget not by one Mr. Frenicle, in which he said the author had discovered great ingenuity and dexterity in the management of numbers; and though several other foreigners had distinguished themselves in the same way, he did not recollect that any one Englishman had done anything of the kind remarkable.
I said it was perhaps a mark of the good sense of our mathematicians that they would not spend their time in things that were merely domiciles novae, incapable of any useful application. He answered that many of the arithmetical or mathematical questions publicly proposed in England were equally trifling and useless. Perhaps the considering and answering such questions, I replied, may not be altogether useless if it produces by practice an habitual readiness and exactness in mathematical disquisitions, which readiness may, on many occasions be of real use. In the same way, says he, may the making of these squares be of use. I then confessed to him that in my younger days, having once some leisure (which I still think I might have employed more usefully) I had amused myself in making this kind of magic squares, and, at length had acquired such a knack at it, that I could fill the cells of any magic square of reasonable size with a series of numbers as fast as I could write them, disposed in such a manner that the sums of every row, horizontal, perpendicular, or diagonal, should be equal; but not being satisfied with these, which I looked on as common and easy things, I had imposed on myself more difficult tasks, and succeeded in making other magic squares with a varietal of properties, and much more curious. He then showed me several in the same book of an uncommon and more curious kind, but as I thought none of them equal to some I remembered to have made, he desired me to let him see them; and accordingly the next time I visited him, I carried him a square of 8 which I found among my old papers, and which I will now give you with an account of its properties Figure 7-9. The properties are:
1. That every straight rov., horizontal or vertical, of 8 numbers added together, make 260, and half of each row, half of 260.
2. That the bent row of 8 numbers ascending and descending diagonally, viz., from 16 ascending to 10 and from 23 descending to 17 and every one of its parallel bent rows of 8 numbers make 260, etc., etc. And lastly the four corner numbers with the four middle numbers make 260. So this magical square seems perfect in its kind, but these are not all its properties, there are five other curious ones which at some time I will explain to you.
This Magic Square by Franklin is given here as Figure 7.
Brother Paul Carus has investigated the means by which Brother Franklin may have worked out his system of Magic Squares but it is really somewhat a question even now with all the later studies that have been given to the subject whether any one has perfected an ability capable of preparing a means of producing these designs with the facility that Brother Franklin mentions. Those who wish to examine the subject further will find it discussed in the Encyclopedia Britannica, in Magic Squares and Cubes, by W. S. Andrews, containing chapters by Brother Paul Carus and others, and in a Scrap Book of Elementary Mathematics by William F. White, as well as in Mathematical Recreations by Professor W. W. R. Ball.
This subject is somewhat allied as a mathematical curiosity with two other figures which come down to us through the Middle Ages, the Magic Pentagon or the Five Pointed Star, as a symbol of the School of Pythagoras, as in Figure 8, and the Magic Hexagram, Figure 9, commonly called the Shield of David and frequently used on synagogues, as Brother Carus points out. these two designs, Figures 8 and 9, have a peculiarity that is not perhaps noticed at the first glance- They can be drawn by one stroke of the pencil, beginning at any point. If they be compared in this respect with any square having two diagonals the difference can soon be tested as the square is not capable of being drawn as a complete figure, including the two diagonals, with one stroke. In order to better illustrate the operation of drawing Figures 8 and 9, numerals have been attached to illustrate the movement of the pencil in tracing them out. Of course, they can be begun at any place in any one of the lines composing the figures.
A title applied in the Middle Ages to one who presided over the building of edifices, and means Master of the Masons.
See Master of the Hospital
Du Cange (Glossiarum) defines this as Master Meson; and he cites the statutes of Marseilles as saying: "Tres Magistros Lapidis bonos et legates, " that is, three good and lawful Master Masons "shall be selected to decide on all questions about water in the city."
MAGISTER MILITIAE CHRISTI
Latin, meaning Master of the Chivalry or Knight of Christ which see under this title.
A name given in the Middle Ages to a Mason; literally, a Master of Stones, from the French pierre, a stone.
See Master of the Temple
SeeComacxneMasters; bo Como
MAGNA EST VERITAS ET PRAEVALEBIT
Istin, meaning The Truth is mighty, and will prevail. The motto of the Red Cross Degree, or Knights of the Red Cross.
MAGNAN, B. P.
A Marshal of France, nominated by Napoleon III, Emperor, as Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, in 1862, and, though not a member of the great Fraternity at the time, was initiated and installed Grand Master, February 8, 1862, and so remained until May 29, 1865.
The title applied in modern usage to the Order of Knights Templar. Well does John Ruskin say (sesame and Lilies, 1865, page 65), "Mighty of heart, mighty of mind magnanimous to be this, is indeed to be great in life." The word is compounded from the Latin magnus, great, and animus, soul, signifying Great of Soul.
This is a form of Freemasonry which, although long ago practiced by Cagliostro as a species of charlatanism, in the opinion of Brother Mackey was first introduced to notice as a philosophic system by Ragon in his treatise on Uafonnerie Occulte.
"The occult sciences," says this writer, "reveal to man the mysteries of his nature, the secrets of his organization, the means of attaining perfection and happiness; and, in short, the decree of his destiny. Their study was that of the high initiations of the Egyptians; it is time that they should become the study of modern Masons." And again he Id "A Masonic society which should establish in its bosom a magnetic academy would soon find the reward of its labors in the good that it would do, and the happiness which it would create." There can be no doubt that the Masonic investigator has a right to search everywhere for the means of moral, intellectual, and religious perfection; and if he can find anything in magnetism which would aid him in the search, it is his duty and wisest policy to avail himself of it. But, nevertheless, Magnetic Freemasonry, as a special regime, or Rite, will hardly ever be adopted by the Fraternity.
This word has at least two important references.
1. The Fourteenth Degree, and the first of the Greater Mysteries of the system of Illuminism.
2. The Ninth and last Degree of the German Rosicrucians. It is the singular of Magi, which see.
The Hebrew interrogative pronoun me, signifying What? It is a component part of a significant word in Freemasonry. The combination Mahhah, literally "Thatt the," is equivalent, according to the Hebrew method of ellipsis, to the question, "What! is this the ?"
A Sanskrit poem, recounting the rivalries of the descendants of King Bharata, and occupying a place among the Masters of the Hindus. It contains many thousand verses, written at various unknown periods since the completion of the Ramayana.
Meaning the great god. one of the common names by which the Hindu god Siva is called. His consort, Durga, is similarly styled MahAdevi, the great goddess. In Buddhistic history, Mahadeva, who lived two hundred years after the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni, or 343, is a renowned teacher who caused a schism in the Buddhistic Church.
The renowned disciple of Buddha Sakyamuni, who arranged the metaphysical portion of the sacred writings called Abhidharma.
Hebrew. Four Hebrew words which the prophet Isaiah was ordered to write upon a tablet, and which were afterward to be the name of his son. They signify, "make haste to the prey, fall upon the spoil," and were prognostic of the sudden attack of the Assyrians. They may be said, in their Masonic use, to be symbolic of the readiness for action which should distinguish a warrior, and are therefore of significant service in the system of Masonic Templarism.
A celebrated Rosicrucian and interpreter and defender of Rosicrueianism. He was born at Resinsburg, in Holstein, in 1568, and died at Magdeburg in 1620, Spence says 1622 (EncycZopsedia of Occultism, 1920) though the former figure is usually given. He is said to have been the first to introduce Rosicrucianism into England. He wrote many works on the system, among which the most noted are Atlanta Fugiens, 1618; Septimana Philosophica, 1620; De Fraternitate Rosoe Crucis, 1618; and Lusus Serius, 1617. Some of his contemporaries having denied the existence of the Rosicrucian Order, Maier in his writings has refuted the calumny and warmly defended the Society, of which, in one of his works, he speaks thus: "Like the Pythagoreans and Fgyptians, the Rosicrucians exact vows of silence and secrecy. Ignorant men have treated the whole as a fiction; but this has arisen from the five years probation to which they subject even well-qualified novices before they se admitted to the higher mysteries, and within this period they are to learn how to govern their own tongues."
Jeremy Gridley, Provincial Grand Master for Massachusetts, granted authority to Alexander Ross to constitute the first Lodge in Maine at Falmouth, afterwards Portland. Ross died November 24, 1768, and a petition signed by eleven Brethren was sent to John Rowe who succeeded Gridley. On March 30, 1769, he granted a new Charter, deputizing William Tyng to act as Master. In 1772 this Lodge resolved, as there was some dispute about the matter, to use the Ancient and Modern Rituals on alternate evenings. Maine was admitted into the Union of the States in 1819, at which time there were thirty-one Lodges in the new State. Twenty-nine of these at a meeting called by Simon Greenleaf agreed to constitute a Grand Lodge. On June 1, 1820, twenty-four Bodies were represented and chose their Grand Officers.. William King, Governor of the State, was elected the first Grand Master. The disappearance of Morgan in 1826 and the consequent anti-Masonic feeling caused a great number of the Lodges in Maine as in New York and Pennsylvania to cease work for a considerable period. In 1870, however, the Craft had grown so strong again that there were one hundred and fifty-four Lodges at work in the State.
The Grand Chapter of Massachusetts granted a Warrant to organize a Chapter in Portland, February 13, 1805, as Mount Vernon Chapter. Montgomery, New Jerusalem, Jerusalem and Mount Vernon Chapters met in convention at Portland on February 7, 1821, and adopted provisionally the Constitution of the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts. Companion Charles Fox of Portland was elected Grand High Priest and Companion James Lorin Child of Augusta, Grand Secretary. The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Maine, thus constituted, was incorporated by special Act of the State Legislature, approved by the Governor, January 22, 1822.
In the early days of Select Freemasonry in Maine a Council was organized, and worked under the General Grand Chapter. Later, when the General Grand Chapter gave up control of the Degrees, the Brethren organized three Councils King Solomon, Mount Vernon and Jerusalem all chartered by the Grand Council of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Three representatives of each of these Councils with twenty other Companions met in Convention at Portland, May 3, 1855, to organize a Grand Council. Companion Robert P. Dunlap of Brunswick was chosen chairman and elected Grand Puissant.
The date of Maine Commandery, No. 1, at Gardiner, is recorded in the Proceedings of 1856 as March 17, 1827, but in the Proceedings of 1916 it appears as May 14, 1821. Maine, No. 1; Portland, No. 2, and Saint John's, No. 3, met in Convention and constituted on May 5, 1852, the Grand Commandery of Maine.
Portland saw the first introduction of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite to the State. On May 14, 1857, were chartered the Yates Lodge of Perfection, the Portland Council of Princes of Jerusalem. and the Dunlap Chapter of Rose Croix. The Maine Consistory, Portland was chartered May 22, 1862.
Initiated into Freeze masonry at Warrington, 1646, with his brother-inlaw, Elias Ashmole.
MAISTRE, JOSEPH DE
Born at Chamberg, France, April 1, 1754; died February 2Gr 1821. Diplomat and man of letters. A Roman Catholic of orthodox extremes against the Revolution in France and supporting the infallibility of the Pope. He is mentioned in Albert Lantoine's Histoire de la FrancMagonnerie, 1925, as a Freemason (see page 179 and other references in above work; also Joseph de Maistre, franc-mason, Paul Vulliaud, Paris, 1926).
The French word meaning Master and freely used as a part of many names of Degrees (see Master) .
The name of the Third Degree in French
French, meaning Ading Mistress. The title of the presiding officer of a female Lodge in the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro.
The Third Degree of the French Rite of Adoption. We have no equivalent word in English. It signifies a Mistress in Freemasonry.
This expressive word wants an equivalent in English, Preeman's Right and Mastership come nearest. The French use La Maîtrise to designate the Third or Master's Degree.
The Sixth Degree of the German Rose Croix.
The Latin term is Illuminatus Major. The Eighth Degree of the Illuminati of Bavaria.
Elections in Masonic Bodies are as a general rule decided by a majority of the votes cast A plurality vote is not admissible unless it has been provided for by a special by-law.
"To make Masons" is a very ancient term; used in the oldest Charges extant as synonymous with the verb to initiate or receive into the Fraternity. It is found in the Larzsdowree Manuscript, whose date is the latter half of the sixteenth century. "These be all the charges . . . read at the making of a Mason."
Hebrew word, meaning an angel. A significant word in the advanced Degrees. Lenning gives it as Melek or Melech.
MALACHI or MALACHIAS
The last of the prophets. A significant word in the Thirty-second Degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
The most southern part of continental Asia. The Grand Lodges of England and Scotland have each chartered several Lodges in this district, and Freemasonry flourishes in Singapore, Selangor, Penang, Ipoh, Malacca, Seremban, Taiping Perak, and Teluk Anson. The first Lodge ever established here was the Neptune Lodge at Penang, warranted September 6, 1809, but, after becoming dormant and then reviving, it finally became extinct in 1862.
MALCOLM CANMORE CHARTER
See Manuscripts, Aprocriphal
King of Scotland. Reported to have chartered the Lodge of Saint John of Glasgow in the year 1051.
One of the Working-Tools of a Mark Master, having the same emblematic meaning as the Common Gavel in the Entered Apprentice's Degree.
It teaches us to correct the irregularities of temper, and, like enlightened reason, to curb the aspirations of unbridled ambition, to depress the malignity of envy, and to moderate the ebullition of anger. It removes from the mind all the excrescences of nce, and fits it, as a well-wrought stone, for that exalted station in the great temple of nature to which, as an emanation of the Deity, it is entitled.
The Mallet or Setting Maul is also an emblem of the Third Degree, and is said to have been the implement by which the stones were set up at the Temple. It is often improperly confounded with the Common Gavel.
The French Freemasons, to whom the word Gavel is unknown, uniformly use maillet, or mallet, in its stead, and confound its sym bolic use, as the implelnent of the presiding officer, with the mallet of the English and American Mark Master.
Anciently known as Melita (see Acts xxviii, 1). A small island in the Mediterranean Sea, which, although occupying only about 91 square miles, possessed for several centuries a greater degree of celebrity than was attached to any other territory of so little extent. It is now a possession of the British Government, but was occupied from 1530 to 1798 by the Knights Hospitalers, then called Knights of Malta, upon whom it was conferred in the former year by Charles V. The Saint John's Lodge of Secrecy and Harmony is claimed to "have assembled as a Lodge since 30 June 1788" (see Lane's Masonic Record, page 220).
On July 2, 1788, Secrecy and Harmony Lodge was reopened and on March 30 the following year it was warranted as No. 539 by the Grand Lodge of England. In 1815 Brother Waller R. Wright was appointed Provincial Grand Master.
Gibraltar was at one time part of the Malta Masonic territory and in 1914 there were five English Lodges located there.
Tunis became part of the Malta District in 1869.
MALTA, CROSS OF
See Cross, Maltese
MALTA, KNIGHT OF
See Knight of Malta
See Cross, Maltese
Among the several significance of word are the following:
1. Man has been called the Microcosm, or little world, in contradistinction to the Macrocosm, or great world, by some fanciful writers on metaphysics, by reason of a supposed correspondence between the different parts and qualities of his nature and those of the universe. But in Masonic symbolism the idea is borrowed from Christ and the Apostles, who repeatedly refer to man as a symbol of the Temple.
2. A man was inscribed on the standard of the Tribe of Reuben, and is borne on the Royal Arch banners as appropriate to the Grand Master of the Second Veil. It was also the charge in the third quarter of the arms of the Atholl Grand Lodge.
3. Der Mann, or the 7nan, is the Second
Degree of the German Union.
4. To be "a man, not a woman," is one of the qualifications for Masonic initiation. It is the first, and therefore the most important, qualification mentioned in the ritual.
MAN or PERFECTED CREATION
The symbol representing perfected creation, which is very common on ancient Hindu monuments in China," embraces so many of the Masonic emblems, and so directly refers to several of the elementary principles taught in philosophic Freemasonry, that it is here introduced with its explanations. Forlong, in his Faiths of Man, gives this arrangement:
Ais the Earth, or foundation on which
WaWater, as in an egg, or as condensed fire and ether.
RaFlie, or the elements in motion.
KaAir, or windJuno. or Io ni; a condensed element.
ChaEther, or Heaven, the cosmical Fermer
The accompanying illustration sholvs a design that is frequently found in India. As these symbols are readily interpretable by those conversant with Masonic hieroglyph it may be seen that the elements, in their ascending scale, show the perfected creation. Forlong remarks that:
As it was difficult to show the All-pervading Ether Egypt for this purpose. surrounded her figures with a powder of stars instead of flame, which on Indra's garments were Yonis. This figure gradually developed, becoming in time a very concrete man, standing on two legs instead of a square basethe horns of the crescent Air, being outstretched. formed the arms, and the refulgent Flame. the head, which, with the Greeks and Romans, represented the Sun, or Fire, and gives Light to all. To this being, it was claimed, there were given seven senses; and thus, perfect and erect, stood Man, rising above the animal state.
A discussion of the subject is to be found in Chinese Thought, by Brother Paul Carus, a treatise of decided interest.
The seven senses were seeing, hearing, tasting, feeling, smelling, understanding, and speech (see Ecclesiasticus, in the Apocrypha xvii, 1-5):
"The Lord created man," and "They received the use of the five operations of the Lord; and in the sixth place he imparted (to) them understanding, and in the seventh speech, an interpreter of the cogitations thereof."
The words "seven senses" also occur in the poem of Taliesin, called Y Bid Mavrr, or the Macrocosm (British Magazine, volume xxi, page 30). See further the Mysterium Magnum of Jacob Boehmen, which teaches "how the soul of man, or his inward holy body," was compounded of the seven properties under the influence of the seven planets:
I will adore my Father,
My God, my Supporter,
Who placed, throughout my head,
The soul of my reason,
And made for my perception
My seren faculties
Of Fire, and Earth, and Water, and Air
And mist, and flowers, And the southerly wind,
As it were seven senses of reason
For my Father to impel me:
With the first I shall be animated
With the second I shall touch,
With the third I shall cry out,
With the fourth I shall taste
With the fifth I shall see,
With the sixth I shall hear,
With the seventh I shall smell.
From the Latin, meaning That which is commanded. The Benedictine editors of Du Cange define mandatum as "Breve aut Edictum Regium," that is, a Royal Brief or Edict, and mandamentum as "literae quibus magistratus aliquid mandat," meaning, letters in which a magistrate commands anything. Hence the orders and decrees of a Grand Master or a Grand Lodge are called Mandates, and implicit obedience to them is a Masonic obligation. There is an appeal, yet not a suspensive one, from the Mandate of a Grand Master to the Grand Lodge, but there is none from the latter.
The branches of this tree are a prominent feature in all Eastern religious ceremonies. The mango is the apple-tree of India, with which man, in Indian tale, tempted Eve.
MANGOURIT, MICHELANGE BERNARD DE
A distinguished member of the Grand Orient of France. He founded in 1776, at Rennes, the Rite of Sublimes Elus de la Vérité, or Sublime Elects of Truth, and at Paris the androgynous, both sexes, society of Dames of Mount Thabor. He also created the Masonic Literary Society of Free Thinkers, which existed for three years. He delivered lectures which were subsequently published under the title of Cours de Philosophic Maçonnique, in 500 pages, quarto. He also delivered a great many lectures and discourses before various Lodges, several of which were published. He died, after a long and severe illness, February 17, 1829.
Also termed Gnostics. A sect taking its rise in the middle of the third century, whose belief was in two eternal principles of good and evil. They derived their name from Manes, a philosopher of Persian birth, sometimes called Manichaeus. Of the two principles, Ormudz was the author of the good, while Ahriman was the master spirit of evil. The two classes of neophytes were, the true, siddi kun; the listeners, Samma un.
MANICHEENS, LES FRERES
A secret Italian Society, founded, according to Thory (Acta Latomorum i, 325), and Clavel (Histoire Pittoresque, page 407) in the eighteenth century, at which the doctrines of Manes were set forth in several grades.
Northern Light Lodge was granted a Dispensation in 1864 by Brother A. T. Pierson, then Grand Master in Minnesota. The new Lodge was organized at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) with Brother Dr. John Schultz as Worshipful Master but it ceased to exist after a few years' work. When Red River Settlement, as it was then called, became the Province of Manitoba the Grand Lodge of Canada assumed Jurisdiction and chartered Prince Rupert's Lodge, Winnipeg, in December, 1870. Prince Rupert, Lisgar, and Ancient Landmark Lodges held a Convention on May 12, 1875, and formed the Grand Lodge of Manitoba with the Rev. Dr. XV. C. Clarke as Grand Master. Until the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were established and created Grand Lodges of their own the Grand Lodge of Manitoba controlled the Craft in the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory as well as in Manitoba
German, meaning the Man, the second grade of the Deutsche Union.
MANNA, POT OF
Among the articles laid up in the Ark of the Covenant by Aaron was a Pot of Manna. In the Substitute Ark, commemorated in the Royal Arch Degree, there was, of course, a representation of it. Manna has been considered as a symbol of life; not the transitory, but the enduring one of a future world. Hence the Pot of Manna, Aaron's Rod that budded anew, and the Book of the Law, which teaches Divine Truth, all found together, are appropriately considered as the symbols of that eternal life which it is the design of the Royal Arch Degree to teach.
Dr. Thomas Manningham was a physician, of London, of much repute in the eighteenth century. He took an active interest in the concerns of Freemasonry, being Deputy Grand Master of England, 1752-6. According to Oliver ( Revelations of a Square, page 86), he was the author of the prayer now so well known to the Fraternity, which was presented by him to the Grand Lodge, and adopted as a form of prayer to be used at the initiation of a candidate. Before that period, no prayer was used on such occasions, and the one composed by Manningham, Oliver says with the assistance of Anderson, which is doubtful, as Anderson died in 1739, is here given as a document of the time. It will be seen that in our day it has been somewhat modified, Preston making the first change; and that, originally used as one prayer, it has since been divided, in this country at least, into two, the first part being used as a prayer at the opening of a Lodge, and the latter at the initiation of a candidate.
Most Holy and Glorious Lord God, thou Architect of Heaven and Earth, who art the Giver of all good Gifts and Graces- and hath promised that where two or three are gathered together in thy Name, thou wilt be in the Midst of them- in thy Name we assemble and meet together, most humbly beseeching thee to bless us in all our Undertakings: to give us thy Holy Spirit to enlighten our minds with Wisdom and Understanding- that we may know and serve thee aright, that all our Doinhs may tend to thy Glory and the Salvation of our Souls. And we beseech thee, O Lord God, to bless this our present Undertaking, and to grant that this our Brother may dedicate his Life to thy Service, and be a true and faithful Brother amongst us. undue him with Divine Wisdom, that he may, with the secrets of Masonry, be able to unfold the Mysteries of Godliness and Christianity This we humbly beg, in the Name and for the Sake of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior, Amen.
Doctor Manningham rendered other important services to Freemasonry by his advocacy of healthy reforms and his determined opposition to the schismatic efforts of the Ancient Freemasons. He died February 3, 1794. The third edition of the Boot; of Constitutions (1756, page 258) speaks of him in exalted terms as "a diligent and active officer." Two interesting letters written by Doctor Manningham are given at length in Gould's Concise History of Freemasonry (pages 328-34); one dated December 3, 1756, and addressed to what was then the Provincial Grand Lodge of Holland, refusing leave for the holding of Scotch Lodges and pointing out that Freemasonry is the same in all parts of the world; and another dated July 1, 1757, also dealing with the so-called Scotch Freemasonry, and explaining that its orders of Knighthood were unknown in England, where the only Orders known are those of Masters, Fellow Crafts, and Apprentices.
We may add to the above article, written by Brother Hawkins, retarding the prayer, a further comment upon its age with the addition of the word new preceding Brother it is found in the edition of the Constitutions printed at Dublin, 1730, and reprinted by Brother Richard Spencer, 1870. This seems to antedate the activity of Doctor Manningham.
A dress placed over all the others. It is of very ancient date, being a part of the costume of the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. Among the Anglo-Saxons it was the decisive mark of military rank, being confined to the cavalry. In the medieval ages, and on the institution of chivalry, the long, trailing mantle was especially reserved as one of the insignia of knighthood, and was worn by the knight as the most August and noble decoration that he could have, when he was not dressed in his armor.
The general color of the mantle, in imitation of that of the Roman soldiers, was scarlet, which was lined with ermine or other precious furs. But some of the Orders wore mantles of other colors. Thus the Knights Templar were clothed with a white mantle having a red cross on the breast, and the Knights Hospitaler a black mantle with a white cross. The mantle is still worn in England and other countries of Europe as a mark of rank on state occasions by peers, and by some magistrates as a token of official rank.
MANTLE OF HONOR
The mantle worn by a knight was called the Mantle of donor. This mantle was presented to a knight whenever he was made by the king.
By reference to the Book of the Dead, it will be found that this word covers an ideal space corresponding to the word West, in whose bosom is received the setting sun (see Truth).
Relating to the hand, from the Latin manus, a hand. see the Masonic use of the word in the next two articles.
MANUAL POINT OF ENTRANCE
Freemasons are, in a peculiar manner, reminded, by the hand, of the necessity of a prudent and careful observance of all their pledges and duties, and hence this organ suggests certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of prudence.
In the early English lectures this term is applied to what is now called the Manual Point of Entrance.
Anderson tells us, in the second edition of his Constitutions, that in the year 1717 Grand Master Payne "desired any Brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any old writings and records concerning Masons and Masonry, in order to show the usages of ancient times, and several old copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated" (constitutions 1738, page 110); but in consequence of a jealous supposition that it would be wrong to commit anything to print which related to Freemasonry, an act of Masonic vandalism was perpetrated.
For Anderson further informs us (page 111D, that in 1720, "at some private Lodges, several very valuable manuscripts, for they had nothing yet in print, concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets, and Usa yes, particularly one written by Mr. Nicholas Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones, were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers, that those papers might not fall into strange hands." The recent labors of Masonic scholars in England, among whom the late William James Hughan deserves especial notice, have succeeded in rescuing many of the old Masonic manuscripts from oblivion, and we are now actually in possession of more of these heretofore unpublished treasures of the Craft than were probably accessible to Anderson and his contemporaries (see Records, Old, and Manuscripts, Old).
There are certain documents that at various times have been accepted as genuine, but which are now rejected, and considered to be fabrications, by most, if not by all, critical Masonic writers. The question of their authenticity has been thoroughly gone into by Brother R. F. Gould History of Freemasonry, chapter xi and he places them all "within the category of Apocryphal Manuscripts."
The first is the Leland-Locke Manuscript (see Leland Manuscript).
The second is the Steinmetz Catechism, given by Krause as one of the three oldest documents belonging to the Craft, but of which Gould says, "there appears to me nothing in the preceding 'examination' (or catechism) that is capable of sustaining the claims to antiquity which have been advanced on its behalf."
The third is the Malcolm Canmore Charter, which came to light in 1806, consequent upon the "claim of the Glasgow Freemen Operatinc Saint John's Lodge to take precedence of the other Lodges in the Masonic procession, at the Saving of the foundation-stone of Nelson's Monument on Glasgow Green, although at that time it was an independent organization According to the Charter, the Glasgow Saint John's Lodge was given priority over all the other Lodges in Scotland by Malcolm III, King of Scots, in 1051. The controversy as to the document was lively, but finally it was pronounced to be a manufactured parchment, and the Grand Lodge of Scotland declined to recognize it of value.
The fourth is that of Krause, known as Prince Edwin's Constitution of 926. Upon this unquestioned reliance had for decades been placed, then it came to be doubted, and is now little credited by inquiring Freemasons. Brother Gould closes with the remark:
The original document, as commonly happens in forgeries of this description, is missing; and how, under all the circumstances of the case Krause could have constituted himself the champion of its authenticity, it is difficult to conjecture. Possibly, however, the explanation may be, that in impostures of this character, credulity, on the one part, is a strong temptation to deceit on the other, especially to deceit of which no personal injury is the consequence and which flatters the student of old documents with his own ingenuity.
These remarks, says Brother Hawkins, who prepared this article, are specially quoted as relating to almost all apocryphal documents.
The fifth is the Charter of Cologne, a document in cipher. bearing the date June 24, 1535, as to which see Cologne, Charter of.
The sixth is the Larmenius Charter, or The Charter of Transmission, upon which rests the claims of the French Order of the Temple to being the lineal successors of the historic Knights Templar, for which see Temple, Order of the.
The following is a list, arranged as far as possible in sequence of age, of the old Masonic Manuscripts, now usually known as the Old Charges. They generally consist of three parts first, an opening prayer or invocation; secants, the legendary history of the Craft; third, the peculiar statutes and duties, the regulations and observances, incumbent on Freemasons. There is no doubt that they were read to candidates on their initiation, and probably each Lodge had a copy which was used for this purpose. The late Brother W. J. Hughan made a special study of these old Manuscripts, and was instrumental in discovering a great many of them; and his book The Old Charges of British Freemasons published in 1895, has long been a standard work on the subject. No.......Name.................................Date............Owner.................When and Where Published.
1. Regius (also Halliwell) about 1390. British
Museum By James O. Halliwell in 1840 and 1844 by H. J Whymper
in 1889; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1889.
2. Cooke about 1450 British Museum By Matthew Cooke in 1861-
by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890
3. Dowland. 1550 Unknown By James Dowland, in Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1815, W. J. Hughan, Old Charges, 1872.
4. Grand Lodge No. 11583.Grand Lodge of England By W. J. Hughan, in Old Charges,1872; by H. Sadler, in Masonic Facts and Fictions 1887; in History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders, 1891; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
5. Lansdowne./.about 1600 British Museum In Freemasons' Quarterly Retried 1848- in Freemasons' Magazine, l558; in Hughan's Old Charges, 1872- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890.
6. York, No. 1about 1600 York Lodge, No. 236 In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; in Masonic Magazine, 1873; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls 1894
7. Wood1610 Prov. G. Lodge of Worcester In Masonic Magazine, 1881- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895
8. John T. Thorp 1629 J. T. Thorp, Leicester In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume ix, 1898, in Lodge of Research Transactions, 1898-99
9. Sloane,3848 1646 British Museurn In Hughan's Old Charges 1872- in Masonic Magazine, 1873; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891
10. Sloane, 3323 1659 British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891.
11. Sloane, 3329 1640-1700 British Museum Voice of Masonry, 1872.
12. Grand Lodge, No. 2 about 1650 Grand Lodge of England By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
13. Harleian,1942 about 1650 British Museum. In Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1836, in Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890.
14. G. W. Bain. about 1650 R- Wilson, Leeds. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xx, 1907.
15. Harleian, 2054 about 1660 British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Masonic Magazine, 1873; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in l591.
16. Phillipps, No. 1 about l777 Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick,Cheltenham. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894.
17. Phillipps, No. 2 about 1677 Rev- J- E- A. Fenwick. In Masonic Magazine, 1876, in Archaelogical Library, 1878; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in l594.
18. Lochmore. 1650-1700 Prov G- Lodge of Worcester. In Masonic Magazine, 1882.
19. Buchanan. 1650-1700. Grand Lodge of England. ln Gould's History of Freemasonry, by Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
20. Kilwinning. about 1665. Mother Kilwinning Lodge Scotland . In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Lyon's History of the Lodge of Edinburch, 1873.
21. Ancient Stirling 1650-1700 Ancient Stirling Lodge, Scotland By Hughan in 1893.
22. Taylor. about 1650 Prov. G. Lodge of West Yorkshire. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxi, 1908
23. Atcheson Haven. 1666. G. Lodge of Scotland. In Lyon's History of the Lodge of Edinburph. 1873
24. Aberdeen. 1670. Aberdeen Lodge, No. 1 tris. In Foice of Masonry, Chieago, U. S. A., 1874- in Freemason, 1895.
25. Melrose, No. 2. 1674. Melrose Saint John Lodge, No. 1 bis, Scotland. In Masonic Magazine, 1880- in Vernon's History of FreeMasonry in Roxburgh etc., 1893.
26. Henery Heade. 1675. Inner Temple Library, London . In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxi
27. Stanley. 1677. West Yorkshire Masonnic Librari. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reproductions, Freemason's Chronicle , 1893
28. Carson. 1677. E. T. Carson, Cincinnati . In Masonic Review (Cincinnati), 1890: in Freemasons' Chronicle, 1890.
29. Antiquity. 1686 Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2, London In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872.
30. Col. Clerke. 1686. Grand Lodge of England. In Freemason, 1888; in Conder's Hole Crafte, etc., 1894.
31. William Watson. 1687. West Yorkshire Masonic Library In Freemason, 1891; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1891; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895.
32. T. W. Tew. about 1680. West Yorkshire Masonic Library In Christmas Freemason, 1888; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1889 and 1892
33. Inigo Jones about 1680. Worcestershire Masonic Library In Masonic Magazine, 1881; by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895.
34. Dumfries, No. 1 1675-1700 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge No. 53, Scotland. In Smith's History of the Old Lodae of Dumfries, 1892
35. Dumfries, No. 2 1675-1700 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge No. 53, Scotland . In Christmas Freemason, 1892; by Hughan 1892
36. Beaumont. 1675-1700 Prov. G. Lodge, West Yorkshire. In Freemasons 1894.
37. Dumfries, No. 3 1675-1700. Prov. G. Lodge, West Yorkshire. In Smith's History of the Old Lodge of Dumfries 1892
38. Hope. 1675-1700. Lodge of Hope, No. 302 Bradford, Yorkshire. In Hughan's Old Charges. 1872: in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892
39.T. W. Embleton. 1675-1700 West Yorkshire Masonic Library . In Christmas Freemason, 1889 - in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1893.
40. York, No. 5 about 1670 . York Lodge, No. 236 . In Masonic Magazine, 1881; in Ancient York Masonic Constitutions, 1894
41. York, No. 6 1675-1700 York Lodge, No. 236. In Masonic Magazine, 1880- in Ancient York Masonic Constitutions, 1894
42. Colne, No. 1 1675-1700 Royal Lancashire Lodge, No.116, Colne, Lancashire. In Christmas Freemason, 1887.
43. Clapham about 1700. West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In Freemason, 1890; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
44. Hughan. 1675-1700 West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892 in Freemason, 1892 and 1911
45. Dauntesey. about 1690. R. Dauntesey, Manehester. In Keystones Philadelphia, 1886.
46. Harris, No. 1. about 1690. Bedford Lodge, No. 157 London . In Freemasons' Chronicle, 1882.
47. David Ramsey. about 1690. The Library, Hamburg. In Freemason, 1906.
48. Langdale. about 1690. G. W. Bain. Sunderland. In Freemason, 1895
49. H. F. Beaumont. 1690 . West Yorkshire Masonic Library . In Freemason, 1894; in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1901.
50. Waistell 1693. West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
51. York, No. 4. 1693 York Lodge, No. 236 In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Reprints, 1871; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894.
52. Thomas Foxeroft. 1699. Grand Lodge of England In Freemason, 1900
53. Newcastle College Roll. about 1700. Neweastle College of Rosicrucians. By F. F. Schnitger in 1894
54. John Strachan. about 1700. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076. In the Transactions of the Lodge of Research 1899-1900
55. Alnwick. 1701. Formerly Edwin T. Turnbull Alnwick, now Newcastle College ./. In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Resprints, 1871, and Old Charges, 1872, by the Newcastle College of Rosicrucians in 1895
56. York, No. 2 . 1704 . York Lodge, No. 238 . In Hughan's Masonic Stsetches and Reprints, 1871; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894.
57. Scar borough . 1705. Grand Lodge of Canada .In Philadelphia Mirror arusKeystoree, 1860; in Canadian Masonic Record, 1874; in Masonic Magazine, 1879- by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894; in Ancient York Masonic Rolls, 1894
58. Wallace Heaton .1695-1715. Grand Lodge of England. In Masonic Record, London, July, 1927.
59. Colne, No. 2 1700-25 Royal Lancashire Lodge, No.116, Colne, Lancashire. Has not been reproduced
60. Papworth about 1720 W. Papworth, London In Hughan's Old Charoes, 1872
61. Macnab 1722 West Yorkshire Masonic Library. In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1896.
62. Haddon. 1723 J. S. Haddon, wellington. ln siughan's Old Charges, 1895.
63. Phillipps, No. 3.. 1700-25. Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick, Cheltenham By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894
64. Dumfries, No. 4 1700-25 Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge,No. 53, Scotland. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume v, 1893.
65. Cama . 1700-25 . Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891.
66. Songhurst about 1725. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.207G, London. Has not been reproduced.
67. Spencer 1726. E. T. Carson, Cincinnati.. In Spencer's Old Constitutions, 1871.
68. Tho. Carmick . 1727. P. F. Smith, Pennsylvania. In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xxii,1909.
69. Woodford. 1728. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London . A copy of the Cooke Manuscript.
70. Supreme Council.. 1728. Supreme Council, 33 , London. A copy of the Cooke Manuscript
71. Gateshead . about 1730. Lodge of Industry, No. 48,Gateshead, Durham./. In Masonic Magazine, 1575
72. Rawlinson .1725-50 . Bodleian Librara, Oxford..ln Freemasons' Monthly Magazine, 1855 -in Masonic Magazine, 1876- in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volume xi, 1898
73. Probite. about 1736.Probity Lodge, No. 61, Halifax, Yorkshire. In Freemason, 1886, in West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 1892.
74. Levander-York . about1740. F. W. Levander, London. In Ars QuaJuor CororLatorum, volume xviii, 1905.
75. Thistle Lodge 1756 Thistle Lodge, No. 62, Dumfries, Scotland . Has not been reproduced.
76. Melrose, No. 3. 1762. Melrose Saint John, No.1 his, Scotland . Has not been reproduced.
77. Crane, No. 1. 1781. Cestrian Lodge, No. 425,Chester. In Freemason, 1884.
78. Crane, No. 2. 1770-1800. Cestrian Lodge, No. 425,Chester. In Freemason, 1884.
79. Harris No. 2. about 1781. British Museum. By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892.
80. Tunnai. about 1828. Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No.2076, London. Has not been reproduced.
81. Wren 1852 Unknown.. In Masonic Magazine, 1879.
There are a number of manuscripts not included in the above list but which will be found under their respective titles elsewhere in this Encyclopedia. Some of these manuscripts are known only by copies or by references of one kind or another in various documents and publications. Of these we may here enumerate the Wilson, Nos. 1 and 9, of either the sixteenth or seventeenth century; the Dermott and Morgan of the sixteenth century; the York, No. 3, Doctor Plot, Supreme Council, No. 1, Hargrove, Masons Company, Roberts, Briscoe, Baker, Colc, Dodd, of probably the seventeenth century, and the Batty Langley and the Krause of the eighteenth.
The second month of the Jewish civil year. It begins w ith the new moon in November, and corresponds, therefore, to a part of that month and of December.
MARCONIS, GABRIEL MATHIEU
more frequently known as De Negre, from his dark complexion, was the founder and first Grand Master and Grand Hierophant of the Rite of Memphis, brought by Sam'l Honis, a native of Cairo, from Egypt, in 1814, who with Baron Dumas and the Marquis de la Rogne, founded a Lodge of the Rite at Montauban. France, on April 30, 1815, which was closed March 7, 1816. In a work entitled The Sanctuary of Memphis, by Jacques Etienne Marconis, the author presumptively the son of G. M. Marconis who styles himself the founder of the Rite of Memphis, thus briefly gives an account of its origin: "The Rite of Memphis, or Oriental Rite, was introduced into Europe by Ormus, a seraphic priest of Alexandria and Egyptian sage, who had been converted by Saint Mark, and reformed the doctrines of the Egyptians in accordance with the principles of Christianity. The disciples of Ormus continued until 1118 to be the sole guardians of ancient Egyptian wisdom, as purified by Christianity and Solomonian science. This science they communicated to the Templars. They were then known by the title of Knights of Palestine, or Brethren Rose Croix of the East. In them the Rite of Memphis recognizes its immediate founders."
The above, coming from the Grand Hierophant and founder, should satisfy the most scrupulou6 as to the conversion of Ormus by Saint Mark, and his then introducing the Memphis Rite. But Marconis continues as to the main object and the underlying intention of his Rite: The Masonic Rite of Memphis is a combination of the ancient mysteries; it taught the first men to render homage to the Deity. Its dogmas are bared on the principles of humanity; its mission is the study of that wisdom which serves to discern truth; it is the beneficent dawn of the development of reason and intelligence; it is the worship of the qualities of the human heart and the impression of its aces: in fine, it is the echo of religious toleration. the union of all belief, the bond between all men, the symbol of sweet illusions of hope, preaching the faith in God that saves, and the charity that blesses.
We are further told by the Hierophant founder that:
The Rite of Memphis is the sole depository of High Masonry the true Primitive Rite. the Rite par excellence which has come down to us without any alteration, and is consequently the only Rite that can justify its origin and the combined exercise of its rights by constitutions the authenticity of which cannot be questioned. The Rite of Memphis. or Oriental Rite, is the veritable Masonic tree and all systems, whatsoever they be, are but detached branches of this institution, venerable for its great antiquity, and born in Egypt. The real deposit of the principles of Freemasonry, written in the Chaldee language. is preserved in the sacred ark of the Rite of Memphis and in part in the Grand Lodge of Scotland at Edinburgh, and in the Maronite Convent on Mount Lebanon.... Brother Marconis de Negre, the Grand Hierophant, is the sole consecrated depositary of the traditions of this Sublime Order.
The above is enough to reveal the character of the father and reputed son for truth, as also of the institution founded by them, which, like the firefly, is seen now here, now there, but with no steady beneficial light (see Memphis, Rite of ).
MARCONIS, JACQUES ETIENNE
MARCONIS DE NÉGRE JACQUES - ETIENNE
Born at Montauban, January 3, 1795; died at Paris, November 21, 1868 (see the preceding article, also Memphis, Rite of).
A victorious warrior-god, described on one of the Assyrian clay tablets of the British Museum, who was said to have engaged the monster Tiamat in a cosmogonic struggle. He was armed with a namzar, grappling-hook; ariktu, lance; shibbu, lasso; qashtu, bow; zizpau, club; and kabab, shield, together with a dirk in each hand.
A Norwegian secret society exclusively for women. The avowed purpose is to bind the members in a strong faithful body, to improve the consciousness of self, and to use familiar symbols for the furtherance of common ideals. The Freemasonry of Norway has had a friendly attitude toward this organization which was started officially in January, 1917, when the first Lodge was consecrated in Christiania; the second was dedicated in Bergen in April, 1922, and the third in Stavenger, in October, 1924. above translated from the Norwepan, for Palmer Templegram, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March, 1925.
Empress of Austria, who showed great hostility to Freemasonry, presumably from religious leanings and advisers. Her husband was Francis I, elected Emperor of Germany in 1745. He was a zealous Freemason, and had been initiated at The Hague in 1731, at a Special Lodge, at which Lord Chesterfield and Doctor Desaguliers were present. He was raised at Houghton Hall, the same year, while on a visit to England. He assisted to found the Lodge Drei Kanonen, at Vienna, constituted in 1742. During the forty years' reign of Maria Theresa, Freemasonry was tolerated in Vienna doubtless through the intercession of the Emperor. It is stated in the Pocket Companion of 1754, one hundred grenadiers were sent to break up the Lodge, taking twelve prisoners, the Emperor escaping by a back staircase. He answered for and freed the twelve prisoners. His son, Emperor Joseph, inherited good-will to Freemasonry. He was Grand Master of the Viennese Freemasons at the time of his death.
The appropriate jewel of a Mark Master. It is made of gold or silver, usually of the former metal, and must be in the form of a keystone. On the obverse or front surface, the device or Mark selected by the owner must be engraved within a circle composed of the following letters: H. T. W. S. S. T. K. S. On the reverse or posterior surface, the name of the owner, the name of his Chapter, and the date of his advancement, may be inscribed, although this is not absolutely necessary. The Mark consists of the device and surrounding inscription on the obverse. The Mark jewel, as prescribed by the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, is of mother-of-pearl. The circle on one side is inscribed with the Hebrew letters fast n, and the circle on the other side with letters containing the same meaning in the vernacular tongue of the country in which the Chapter is situated, and the wearer's mark in the center. The Hebrew letters are the initials of a Hebrew sentence equivalent to the English one familiar to Mark Masons. It is but a translation into Hebrew of the English mystical sentence.
It is not requisite that the device or Mark should be of a strictly Masonic character, although Masonic emblems are frequently selected in preference to other subjects. As soon as adopted it should be drawn or described in a book kept by the Chapter for that purpose, and it is then said to be "recorded in the Mark Book or Book of Marks," after which time it can never be changed by the possessor for any other, or altered in the slightest degree, but remains as his Mark to the day of his death.
This Mark is not a mere ornamental appendage of the Degree, but is a sacred token of the rites of friendship and brotherly love, and its presentation at any time by the owner to another Mark Master, would claim, from the latter, certain acts of friendship which are of solemn obligation among the Fraternity. A Mark thus presented, for the purpose of obtaining a favor, is said to be pledged; though remaining in the possession of the owner, it ceases, for any actual purposes of advantage, to be his property; nor can it be again used by him until, either by the return of the favor, or with the consent of the benefactor, it has been redeemed; for it is a positive law of the Order, that no Mark Master shall "pledge his Mark a second time until he has redeemed it from its previous pledge. " By this wise provision, the unworthy are prevented from making an improper use of this valuable token, or from levying contributions on their hospitable Brethren.
Marks or pledges of this kind were of frequent use among the ancients, under the name of tessera hospitals and arrhabo. The nature of the tessera hospitalis, or, as the Greeks called it, XuSoXor, cannot be better described than in the words of the Scholiast on the Medea of Euripides (v 613), where Jason promises Medea, on her parting from him, to send her the symbols of hospitality which should procure her a kind reception in foreign countries. It vas the custom, Eays the Scholiast, when a guest had been entertained, to break a die in two parts, one of which parts was retained by the guest, so that if, at any future period he required assistance, on exhibiting the hroken pieces of the die to each other, the friendship was renewed.
Plautus, about two hundred years before Christ, in one of his comedies, gives us an exemplification of themanner in which these tesseToe or pledges of friendship were used at Rome, whence it appears that the privileges of this friendship were extended to the descendants of the contracting parties. Poenulus is introduced, inquiring for Agorastocles, with whose family he had formerly exchanged the tessera.
Ag. Siquidem Antidimarchi quaeris adoptatitium.
Ego sum ipsus quem tu quaeris.
Poen. Hem! quid ego audio?
Ag. Antidamae me gnatum esse.
Poen. Si its est. tesseram Conferre Ei vis hospitalem, eccam, attuli.
Ag. Agedum huc ostende; est par probe; nam habeo domum.
Poen. O mi hospes, salve multum; nam mihi tuus pater
Pater tuus ergo hospes, Antidamas fuit:
Haec mihi hospitalis tessera cum illo fuit.
Poenuul., acs. v, sc. 2, rer. 85.
Ag. Antidimarchus' adopted son,
If vou do seek, I am the vers man.
Poen. Ah! Do I hear aright?
Ag. I am the son oi old Antidamus.
Poen. If so, I pray you Compare with me the hospitable die I've brought this with me.
Ag. Prithee, let me see it.
It is, indeed, the very counterpart
of mine at home.
Poen. All hail, my welcome guest
Your father was my guest, Antidamus.
Your father was my honored guest, and then
This hospitable die with me he parted.
These tesseroe, thus used, like the Mark Master's Mark, for the purposes of perpetuating friendship and rendering its union more sacred, were constructed in the following manner: they took a small piece of bone, ivory, or stone, generally of a square or cubical form, and dividing it into equal parts, each wrote his own name, or some other inscription, upon one of the pieces; they then made a mutual exchange, and, lest falling into other hands it should give occasion to imposture, the pledge was preserved with the greatest secrecy, and no one kneu the name inscribed upon it except the possessor.
The primitive Christians seem to have adopted a similar practice, and the tessera was carried by them in their travels, as a means of introduction to their fellow Christians. A favorite inscription with them were the letters II. T. A. II., being the initials of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The use of these tessarae, in the place of written certificates, continued, says Doctor Harris (Dissertations on the Tesserae Hospitalis), until the eleventh century, at which time they are mentioned by Burchardus, Archbishop of Worms, in a visitation charge.
The arrhabo was a similar keepsake, formed
by breaking a piece of money in two. The etymology of this word
shows distinctly that the Romans borrowed the custom of these
pledges from the ancient Israelites,
for it is derived from the Hebrew arabon, meaning a pledge.
With this detail of the customs of the ancients before us, we can easily explain the well-known passage in Revelation ii, 17: "To him that overcometh will I give a white stone, and in it a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it." That is, to borrow the interpretation of Harris, "To him that overcometh will I give a pledge of my affection, which shall constitute him my friend, and entitle him to privileges and honors of which none else can know the value or the extent." The White Storze of Revelation ii, 17, has been understood as perhaps referring to the Tessara Gladiatoria given to the victor in the arena.
Poet, born at Oregon City, Oregon, April 23, 1852, initiated, passed and raised in Acacia Lodge, No. 92, at Coloma, California, was in 1924 nominated in the Grand Lodge of Oregon for the position of Poet Laureate of the United States. Brother Markham has been farmer, sheep-herder, blacksmith, and superintendent of public schools. His splendid poem, The Man with the Hoe, made him internationally famous in 1899 though he already had written verses for years and has published books of poetry, essays, and other works.
According to Masonic tradition, the Mark Men were the Wardens, as the Mark; Masters were the Masters of the Fellow Craft Lodges, at the building of the Temple. They distributed the marks to the workmen, and made the first inspection of the work, which was afterward to be approved by the overseers. As a Degree, the Mark Man is not recognized in the United States. In England it is sometimes, but not generally, worked as preparatory to the Degree of Mark Master. In Scotland, in 1778, it was given to Fellow Crafts, while the Mark Master was restricted to Master Masons. It was not recognized in the regulations of the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland. Much of the esoteric ritual of the Mark Man has been incorporated into the Mark Master of the American System.
The Fourth Degree of the American Rite. The traditions of the Degree make it of great historical importance, since by them we are informed that by its influence each Operative Mason at the building of the Temple was known and distinguished, and the disorder and confusion which might otherwise have attended so immense an undertaking was completely prevented. Not less useful is it in its symbolic signification. As illustrative of the Fellow Craft, the Fourth Degree is particularly directed to the inculcation of order, regularity, and discipline. It teaches us that we should discharge all the duties of our several stations with precision and punctuality; that the work of our hands and the thoughts of our hearts should be good and true not unfinished and imperfect, not sinful and defective but such as the Great Overseer and Judge of heaven and earth will see fit to approve as a worthy oblation from his creatures.
If the Fellow Craft's Degree is devoted to the inculcation of learning, that of the Mark Master is intended to instruct us how that learning can most usefully and judiciously be employed for our own honor and the profit of others. And it holds forth to the desponding the encouraging thought that although our motives may sometimes be misinterpreted by our erring fellow mortals, our attainments be underrated, and our reputations be traduced by the envious and malicious, there is one, at least, who sees not with the eyes of man, but may yet make that stone which the builders rejected, the head of the corner. The intimate connection then, between the Second and Fourth Degrees of Freemasonry, is this, that while one inculcates the necessary exercise of all the duties of life, the other teaches the importance of performing them with systematic regularity. The true Mark Master is a type of that man mentioned in the sacred parable, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord" (Matthew xxv, 21).
In America, the Mark Master's is the first Degree given in a Royal Arch Chapter. Its officers are a Right Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Secretary, Treasurer, Senior and Junior Deacons, Master, Senior and Junior Overseers The Degree cannot be conferred when less than six are present, who, in that case, must be the first and last three officers above named. The working tools are the Mallet and Indenting Chisel, which see. The symbolic color is purple. The Mark Master's Degree is now given in England under the authority of the Grand Lodge of Mark Masters, which was established in June, 1856 and is a Jurisdiction independent of the Grand Lodge. The officers are the same as in America, with the addition of a Chaplain, Director of Ceremonies, Assistant Director, Registrar of Marks, Inner Guard or Time Keeper, and two Stewards. Master Masons are eligible for initiation. Brother Hughan says that the Degree is virtually the same in England, Scotland, and Ireland. It differs, however, in some respects from the American Degree.
In a letter to the Masonic Home Journal, Louisville, Kentucky (see Proceedings, Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, Michigan, 1920), Companion Alfred A. A. Murray offers the following note to correct an error relating to the Mark Degree in Scotland
As regards the Mark Degree itself it was not worked in the Fellow Craft Lodges, but there were really two Degrees, namely, that of Mark Man, which was given to a Fellow Craft, and that of Mark Master, which was given to a Master Mason. The Degree of Mark Man was worked down to within fifty years ago by various Craft lodges, and given to Fellow Crafts. The Degree of Mark Master was conferred as a separate Degree in the same way as the Royal Arch, and was expressly cut off by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, about 1800, in the same way that the Royal Arch and the Temple were cut off. Before that date they used to be worked by an inner circle of the Lodge as a sort of side issue not under the Grand Lodge of Scotland at all.
The Royal Arch and the Temple wore, after
1800, organized as governing Bodies, and then the Mark Master
Degree was taken under the sole control of the Supreme Grand Chapter,
and continued so 'til, as I say, about fifty years ago, then an
agreement was made between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Chapter
that the two Degrees of Mark Man and Mark Master were to be amalgamated,
and were to be conferred under the authority of either Body but
only upon Master Masons. It is wise to get a clear statement made
upon this point, because I observe a very large amount of mistaken
information is being granted from time to time, which is derived
from conuson. of thought and want of knowledge, and results roanetunes
in mistaken action.
Brother W. J. Hughan (Trestle Board, California, volume xxnii, No. 4, October, 1919) wrote:
During the centuries which immediately preceded the establishment of the premier Grand Lodge of England and the World, the mark was directly connected with operative and speculative Freemasonry, and from time immemorial, it has been the custom for the skilled Craftsman to chisel his distinctive Mark on the stones he fashioned, so as to indicate his workmanship. It is this fact that differentiates the Mark Degree from all other ceremonies additional to the first three, and justified the formation of the Mark Grand Lodge, nearly fifty years ago, so as to take under its wing those lodges which worked with interesting and suggestive ceremony the English Craft agreement excluding it from the formally recognized series, according to the Articles of Union of A.D. 1813-4.
The antiquity of Mark Masonry cannot be doubted. Operatively considered and even speculatively, it has enjoyed special prominence for centuries; records of the custom being followed by speculative Brethren, according to existing records, dating back to 1600, in which year, on June 8, "Ye principal warden and chief master of maisons, Wm. Schaw, master of work to ye Kingis Maistie," met members of the Lodge of Edinburgh-- now No. 1--at Holyrood House, at which meeting the Laird of Auchinleck was present, and attested the Minutes of the Assembly by his Mark as did the Operatives, in accordance with the Schaw Statutes of December 28, 1598, which provided: "That the day of reassauying, or receiving, of said fallow of craft or master be ord'lie buikit and his name and Mark insert in the said buik."
That theoretical Masons selected their Marks just as the Operatives did. during the seventeenth century is abundantly manifest, by an examination of the old Scottish records of that period. One of the most noteworthy instances out of many is the Mark Book of the Lodge of Aberdeen--now No. 1 tri-which started in l670 A.D., and is signed by forty-nine members, all of whom but two have their Marks inserted opposite their names. The Master of the 'Honorable Lodge of Aberdeen' in that year was Harrie Elphingston, Tutor of Airth and Collector of the King's Customs, and only a fourth part of the members were Operative Masons, the roll of Brethren including the Earl of Findlater, the Earl of Dumferline, Lord Pitsligo, the Earl of 'Errolle, a professor of mathematics, several ministers, doctors and other professional men and tradesmen, such as wrights, or carpenters, plaiters, glaziers, ete. The names of the apprentices were entered in another list, the Marks chosen by such being evidently similar to the fathers in several instances (see Marks of the Craft).
When the special and elaborate ceremony, with a distinctive legend, was first used it is not possible to decide, but probably about the middle of the eighteenth century, soon after the arrangement of the Royal Arch as a separate Degree. The oldest preserved records date from the year 1769, and there is no lack of evidence as to the observance of the custom in Speculative Lodges during that century and later either in separate Lodges or under the wing of the Royal Arch. The Mark continued to be worked in England as an unauthorized ceremony until the year 1856, when the Mark Grand Lodge was founded and has proved a conspicuous success, having ultimately secured the support of all the ' time immemorial ' and other Lodges in the country, besides having warranted several hundreds of Lodges to work the Degree in England and the Colonies and dependencies of the British Crown.
The ceremony is very popular, especially in North America, and is recognized by all Grand Chapters of Royal Arch Masons there and elsewhere, excepting in England. The Grand Lodge of Ireland includes it with the additional Degrees belonging to the other Masonic Grand Bodies recognized in it and acting in union with it, and the Grand Lodge of Scotland authorizes the Mark to be conferred on Master Masons. and the secrets only to be communicated in presence of those who have taken the step in a Lodge entitled to grant it. The Mark Grand Lodge in recent years has incorporated the Mark Man with the Mark Master; and wisely so, as it was the former that was conferred on yellow Crafts, and the latter on Master Masons during the eighteenth century.
MARK MASTER'S WAGES
Companion George W. Warvelle commented thus upon the longestablished custom of a penny a day paid as the wages of a Mark Master:
This ridiculously low wage scale seems to have been the work of the early American Titualists. I have in my possession two old English rituals, of Mark Man and Mark Mason, in both of which there is a specification of wages. In the former the rate was ' nine shekels, equal to one pound, two shillings, six pence of our money,' and in the latter it gas 'twenty-five shekels, equal to three pounds, two shillings, six pence of our money.' What the present rate may be in England I am unable to say, but no Englishman would work for the beggarly stipend paid in the American Mark Lodges. I am inclined to believe, however, that our English Brethren have fixed these abnormally high prices to make up for the actual wages formerly paid in England to the Operative Craft. As late as the year 1689 the wages of Freemasons were prescribed by law at one shilling and four pence a day. To demand more subjected them to severe penalties. In fact, it was really the passing of restrictive laws commencing say, about 1356, that led to the present speculative institution, and Masonic scholars of eminence assign the year 1424 as the cessation of English Freemasonry as a strictly operative association (from Tyler Keystone, Michigan, December, 1914).
MARK OF THE CRAFT, REGULAR
In the Mark Degree there is a certain stone which is said, in the instructions, not to have upon it the regular mark of the Craft. This expression is derived from the following tradition of the Degree. At the building of the Temple, each workman placed his own mark upon his own materials, so that the workmanship of every Freemason might be readily distinguished, and praise or blame be justly awarded. These marks, according to the lectures, consisted of mathematical figures, squares, angles, lines, and perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a different kind, such as a circle, would not be deemed "the Regular Mark of the Craft." Of the three stones used in the Mark Degree, one is inscribed with a square and another with a plumb or perpendicular, because these were marks familiar to the Craft; but the third, which is inscribed with a circle and certain hieroglyphics, was not known and was not, therefore, called regular (see also Marks of the Craft).
Companion Alfred A. A. Murray, submitted a Memorandum in 1919 to the Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, which was in part as follows:
A clear statement has frequently been requested as to the exact rules governing the form of Marks. In particular, a prominent Chapter has specially asked to be provided with a definite rule. In consequence the following Memorandum was submitted to Supreme Grand Committee for the purpose of information so that they might consider the subject and, if so advised, give an official ruling on the meaning of the Committee on Marks, and in the interval the Memorandum has been revised and corrected.
In Ireland there are no definite rules, and the Marks are accepted just as they are sent in. No attention is paid practically to the matter, and not one Mark Mason in twenty adopts a Mark of any kind. Those who do frequently select designs quite unsuitable for the purpose, such as crests or monograms, but they are all registered in Grand Chapter books without question.
I am informed that by a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of England, on 14th December, 1864, the regulation confining Speculative Masons' Marks to any specified number of points was abrogated. But straight lines are imperative.
In America, so far as can be ascertained,
there is no rule specifying what should be selected as a Mark,
this being left entirely to the candidate himself to determine,
The Grand Lodge of Scotland has never, so far as can be ascertained, laid down any rule whatever, and disclaims any responsibility for any ritual on the subject.
The way, therefore, appears to be quite open to this Committee to suggest a definite ruling for themselves and to let others follow it or not as they choose. The instructions as they stand at present substantially consist of a direction that any Mark adopted by a candidate and member must consist of any number of odd points connected by lines, with the exception of one special figure containing three points. The old manuscript copy of the working, in the possession of Supreme Grand Chapter, says, "3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 points joined together to form any figure they please except, etc." It may be interesting to add, in parenthesis, that according to the old independent Yorkshire working early last century, the members present had also to be 3, 5, 7, 9, etc., and the fee was "one mark, Is lHd., neither more nor less."
The theory held by some is that the Mark was, and is still supposed to be, made by the workman with the edge of a chisel, not by its corner point, so that each stroke therefore will make nothing but a straight line. This would apply to the Mark on the blade of the chisel, but I should rather think the Mark cut on a stone would be made by a pointed chisel, and therefore that so far it would be conveniently possible to form a curved figure. As the Mark was reproduced on the hewn stones, it should have been the same as that which was struck on the blade of the Mason's own tools to identify them in the boxes, or when returned from sharpening, or for any other necessary purposes. While the actual wording of the instructions do not expressly say straight lines this is commonly understood to be implied.
The old ritual of Chapter Esk, No. 42, however, expressly says, "straight or curved lines." There may be others giving the same reading. Among the Operative Masons of Scotland for centuries genuine curved Marks are by no means unknown, but are very few. For instance, at Fortress Cathedral out of 265 Marks there is only one with curved lines--representing a vessel. A heart is also an emblem not uncommon. But, on the whole, out of the many thousand specimens from the thirteenth century downwards, it is almost unusual to find a Mark with curved lines. The Speculative Masons are lineal descendants of the Operative Craft, though not the only branch, and theoretically they are subject to the same rules of work and interpretation as the Body from which they sprang.
The first question which arises is as to the regulation about the number of points. This regulation may hold with the present speculative systems, but it has nothing whatever to do with King Solomon's Temple, where not a single Mason's Mark has ever been found. Indeed there are no Mason's Marks on any known historic and ancient Jewish building, or at least if so I am not aware of it. The story about a Mark of approval made by an equilateral triangle and about juxtaposition Marks is apocryphal. The regulation has no sanction or foundation in the practice of the Operative Craft. No system of counting will ever prove that such a rule existed operatively. Numberless specimens prove the contrary.
There used to be a story current in the Craft some thirty years ago that there was a distinction between the Mark of a Fellow of Craft and that of a Master Mason, the former having an even number of points and the latter an odd number. The idea was a fad of some theorists and had no foundation in fact, except that when the agreement between the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland regarding the Mark Degree was entered into, it evidently ignored the fact that the Stark Man and the Mark Master were two separate Degrees--the former worked after the second Degree and the latter after the third. But the Mark was chosen by the Mark Man, and the indiscriminate use of any number of Points for a Mark, odd or even, is therefore, according to the basis of the theory mentioned, correct. Incidentally. it may be added that the part of our present ritual referring to the infliction of the penalty is incorrectly expressed. It was the Entered Apprentice who suffered. because he had no Mark to present, not the Fellow Craft who presented his own Mark. It is absurd to suppose that he suffered because he used the triangle instead of his proper Mark.
The American ritual I have seen solves this difficulty by making the Mark Master present and withdraw his hand in a different way to that of his workmen. Assuming, however, that the rule according to the ritual is to be observed, a difficulty arises as to what precisely is meant by a point which has to be counted.
The instruction is that the Mark must have a certain number of odd points connected by straight lines. Now every straight line consists of an innumerable number of points. Logically, therefore, the definition means and implies that every point in a straight line is not to be counted solely because it is in that line. Any point to be counted must be Selected for some other reason. Now, according to the definition it is quite clear that the end points of a straight line must be and are intended to be counted because they are the points which are connected by a straight line. It is therefore beyond question that any point which is the beginning, or ending, of one or more straight lines must be a point to be counted according to the rules of the Degree.
The difficulty arises as to the counting when two straight lines intersect, or rather when they not merely intersect but cross one another. In such a case is the point of intersection a point within the meaning of the instructions for the Degree? Varying opinions have for the past half-century been held among Freemasons about this, but the old records rather support the rule that a mere intersection or crossing does not constitutes a point. The point is and must be the end of a line and not merely a part of it in the middle.
In the petition to Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1677 on which the Warrant to Lodge Canongate Kilwinning was granted, nine out of the twelve petitioners append their Marks. They are all composed of straight lines connected together. If crossings are not counted, there were eight even and one odd. If crossings are counted, there were three even and six odd. one of them was even and had no crossing point. In the first Minute-Book of the Lodge of Edinburgh, if crossings are not counted, about two-thirds of the Marks are odd and the remaining one-third even. If crossings are counted, there is a slight preponderance of odd points. Robert Burns' Mark had eleven points, but if the crossing is counted it had twelve.
In the Mark Book of Chapter Edinburgh for the first fifty years or so, if crossings are not counted, there are thirty-three odd and forty even. If crossings are counted, the same proportion remains. But one hundred and thirty-four out of two hundred and thirty-three Marks transgress the rules that straight lines only must be counted. The use of curved lines has, however, in this case ceased for several decades. As in the case of the Roman Eagle Lodge, when the Mark Degree was intro duced in 1785, a large number of the transgressing Marks are not Marks at all, but representations of Masonic symbols and emblems such as the hive, the irradiated sun, the ladder, the skull and cross-bones, the heart, and so on. There are Jewish and other letters, a hand grasping an arrow, or a sword, or a pen, or a musket. There is a horse vaulting a gate, and a lion passant, a clam shell a stag's head, a man in the moon, a harp, the Volume of the Sacred Law, an irradiated star, and a laurel branch, etc., all drawn illustratively. There are also several Marks with points alone and no lines at all.
There are also instances of, say, a shield with a triangle or a cross, or some entirely separate figure within it Latterly, it is only too common to find puerile attempts to combine initials. To sum up, the main points for decision are:
1. Whether a point--a mere dot--can be counted
if it is shown alone and not as part of a line.
2. Whether a point means the end of a separate and distinct line or a free salient angle.
3. Whether the lines must be straight or may be curved.
4. Whether the lines must all be connected or whether they may he disconnected as, for example, a triangle within a shield, or dots or a small or large circle.
5. Whether the points must be odd in number.
6. Whether in this case a crossing point must be counted.
7. Whether in the same ease n crossing point need not be counted unless desired, and, if one is counted, must all in the same figure be counted.
8. Whether the points may be odd or even in number. In this case it is not necessary to trouble about crossing points, because they can make no difference to the ultimate result
As a closing remark it ought to be added that, looking at the number of different Marks required for the large number of members now being admitted, if any mere point of intersection is allowed to be counted it will make it greatly easier to multiply the available number of possible Marks. If such a point of mere intersection is not to be counted and is ruled out, the number of available Marks with a reasonable number of lines will be cut down probably by one-fourth. This is admittedly an argument ad conrenientiam, but in certain eases expedience rises to the height of principle. The rule suggested is simply that ah Marks in future must be composed of straight lines joined together, and the counting of points be discontinued. If this rule be adopted no further question can apparently arise, and the simplicity of the rule is greatly in its favour. It would involve, however, that the ritual should be subject to a slight correction to bring it into conformity with the rule, but this can easily be done.
Further information will be found in Doctor Mackay's revised History of Freemasonry, some sixty-five items being indexed. Many valuable references to the subject are in the Appendix to the Proceedings (Grand Chapter, Royal arch Masons, Michigan, 1920), contributed by Companion Charles A. Conover, General Grand Secretary. Additional references are in a paper read by Professor George Godwin, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868; four articles by John E. Dove, Builder, London, April 4 and 18, June 6, and July 11, 1863, also a paper on Masonry and Masorls Marks, Brother T. Hayter Lewis, Transactions, Quatuor Coronati Lodge (volume iii, 1890).
The pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, famous American humorist, born November 30, 1835, at Florida, Missouri. He petitioned Polar Star Lodge No. 79 of St. Louis under date of December 26, 1860, as follows:
The subscriber, residing in Saint Louis, of lawful age and by occupation a Pilot, begs leave to state that unbiased by friends and uninfluenced by mercenary motives he freely and voluntarily offers himself as a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry and that he is prompted to solicit this privilege by a favorable opinion conceived of the Institution, a desire of knowledge and sincere wish of being serviceable to his fellow creatures. Should his petition be granted he will cheerfully conform to all the ancient established usages and customs of the Fraternity.
Recommended by John M. Leavenworth, Tom Moore. Committee: H. T. Taylor, Defreiz, Wannall.
(Signed) Sam L. Clemens.
The petition was received on the same day and the Committee made a favorable report February 18, 1861. He was Initiated May 22, 1861, Passed, June 12, 1861, and Raised July 10, 1861. On June 12, he paid the Lodge $20 cash and made a further payment of $10 on July 10. During a trip that he made to Palestine he sent his Lodge at St. Louis a mallet accompanied by the following memorandum:
This Mallet is of Cedar cut in the Forest of Lebanon, whence Solomon obtained the Timbers for the Temple. The handle was cut by Brother Clemens himself from a cedar planted just outside the walls of Jerusalem by Brother Godfrey DeBoullion, the first Christian Conqueror of that City, nineteenth of July, 1099.
This gavel in its present form was made
at Alexandria Egypt, by order of Brother Clemens.
From Brother Sam'l L. Clemens
to J. H. Pottenger, M.D.
March 25, 1868
Presented to Polar Star Lodge No. 79
By J. H. Pottenger, W. M.
April 8, 1868.
In 1869 he asked for a dimit but this is not known to have ever been presented to any Lodge. Mark Twain has many racy books of travel and adventure, as well as a number of humorous autobiographical novels to his credit. He received the degree of Doctor of Literature from Oxford. For many years he was considered the most outstanding and popular American personality in the world of letters. During the later years of his life he was able to amass a considerable fortune although most of his life was harassed by a constant struggle against poverty. He died at Redding, Connecticut, on April 21, 1910.
MARES OF THE CRAFT
In former times, Operative Masons, the Steinmetzen, or Stone Cutters, of Germany, were accustomed to place some mark or sign of their own invention, which, like the monogram of the painters, would seem to identify the work of each. They are to be found upon the cathedrals, churches, castles, and other stately buildings erected since the twelfth century, or a little earlier, in Germany, France, England, and Scotland. As Professor George Godwin has observed in his History in Ruins, it is curious to see that these marks are of the same character, in form, in all these different countries. They were principally crosses, triangles, and other mathematical figures, and many of them were religious symbols. Specimens taken from different buildings supply such forms as are here illustrated.
The last of these is the well-known vesica pisces, the symbol of Christ among the primitive Christians, and the last but one is the Pythagorean pentalpha. A writer in the London Times (August 13, 1835) is incorrect in stating that these marks are confined to Germany, and are to be found only since the twelfth or thirteenth centuries. More recent researches have shown that they existed in many other countries, especially in Scotland, and that they were practiced by the builders of ancient times. Thus Ainsworth, in his Travels (ii, 167), tells us, in his description of the ruins of Al-Hadhy in Mesopotamia, that "every stone, not only in the chief building, but in the walls and bastions and other public monuments, when not defaced by time, is marked with a character which is for the most part either a Chaldean letter or numeral."
M. Didron, who reported a series of observations on the subject of these Masons' Marks to the Comity Historique des Arts et Monuments of Paris, believes that he can discover in them references to distinct schools or Lodges of Freemasons. He divides them into two classes: those of the overseers, and those of the men who worked the stones. The marks of the first class consist of monogrammatic characters; those of the second are of the nature of symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc.
A correspondent of the Freemasons Quarterly Revieto states that similar marks are to be found on the stones which compose the walls of the fortress of Allahabad, which was erected in 1542, in the East Indies. He says:
The walls are composed of large oblong blocks of red granite, and are almost everywhere covered by Masonic emblems which evince something more than mere ornament. They are not confined to one particular spot, but are scattered over the walls of the fortress, in many places as high as thirty or forty feet from the ground. It is quite certain that thousands of stones on the walls, bearing these Masonic symbols, were carved, marked and numbered in the quarry previous to the erection of the building.
In the ancient buildings of England and France, these marks are to be found in great abundance. In a communication, on this subject, to the London Society of Antiquaries, Professor George Godwin states that, "in my opinion, these marks, if collected and compared might assist in connecting the various bands of operatives, who, under the protection of the Church--mystically united--spread themselves over Europe during the Middle Ages, and are known as Freemasons." Professor Godwin describes these marks as varying in length from two to seven inches, and as formed by a single line, slightly indented, consisting chiefly of crosses, well-known Masonic symbols, emblems of the Trinity and of eternity, the double triangle, trowel, square, etc. The same writer observes that, in a conversation, in September, 18U, with a mason at work on the Canterbury Cathedral, he "found that many Masons, all who were Freemasons, had their mystic marks handed down from generation to generation; this man had his mark from his father, and he received it from his grandfather."
They're traced in lines on the Parthenon
Inscribed by the subtle Greek
And Roman legions have carved them on
Walls, roads and arch antique
Long ere the Goth, with vandal hand
Gave scope to his envy dark
The Mason Craft in many a land
Has graven its Mason Mark.
The obelisk old and the pyramids,
Around which a mystery clings,--
The hieroglyphs on the coffin lids
of weird Egyptinn kings,--
Syria. Carthage and Pompeii
buried and strewn and stark,
Have marble records that will not die,
Their primitive Mason Mark.
Upon column and frieze and capital,
In the eye of the chaste volute--
On Scotia's curve, or an astrogal,
()r in triglyp's channel acute--
Cut somewhere on the entablature,
Old oft, like a sudden spark,
Flashing a light on a date obscure,
Shines many a Mason Mark.
These Craftsmen old had a genial whim,
That nothing could e'er destroy
With a love of their art that naught could dim,
They toiled with a chronic joy;
Nothing was too complex to essay,
In aught they dashed to embark;
They triumphed on many an Appian Way,
Where they'd left their Mason Mark.
Crossing the Alps like Hannibal,
Or skirting the Pyranees
On peak and plain, in crypt and cell
On foot or on bandaged knees,--
From Tiber to Danube, front Rhine to Seine,
They needed no "letters of marque ";--
Their art was their passport in France and Spain,
And in Britain their Mason Mark.
The monolith gray and Druid chair,
The pillars and towers of Gael,
In Ogham occult their age they bear,
That time can only reveal.
Live on, old monuments of the past,
Our beacons through ages dark!
In primal majesty still you'll last
Endeared by each Mason Mark.
MARROW IN THE BONE
An absurd corruption of a Jewish word, and still more absurdly said to be its translation. It has no appropriate signification in the place to which it is applied, but was once religiously believed in by many Freemasons, who, being ignorant of the Hebrew language, accepted it as a true interpretation. It is now universally rejected by the intelligent portion of the Craft.
MARSEILLES, MOTHER LODGE OF
A Lodge was established in 1748, at Marseilles, in France, Thory says, by a traveling Freemason, under the name of Saint Jean d'Ecosse. It afterward assumed the name of Mother Lodge of Marseilles, and still later the name of Scottish Mother Lodge of France. It granted Warrants of its own authority for Lodges In France and in the Colonies.
An officer common to several Masonic Bodies, whose duty is to regulate processions and other public solemnities. In Grand Bodies he is called a Grand Marshal. In the American Royal Arch System, the Captain of the Host acts on public occasions as the Marshal. The Marshal's ensign of office is a baton or short rod. The office of Marshal in State affairs is very ancient. It was found in the court of the Byzantine emperors, and was introduced into England from France at the period of the conquest. Isis badge of office was at first a rod or verge, which was afterward changed to the baton, for, its an old writer has observed, Thinne, "the verge or rod was the ensign of him who had authority to reform evil in ware and in peace, and to see quiet and order observed among the people."
Born in Virginia, September 24, 1755; died July 6, 1835. Secretary of State, 1800, then first Chief Justice of the United States, serving for thirty-four years, and had been an officer, lieutenant and then captain, in the American Revolution. He was a famous Freemason, a member of Lodge No. 13 at Richmond and instrumental with Edmund Randolph, Governor of Virginia, 1786, and also Grand Master, in establishing the two Lodges, Richmond No. 10, and Richmond Randolph No. 19, the latter Lodge performing the Masonic rites at Brother Marshall's funeral. He served as Deputy Grand Master of Virginia and from October 8, 1793, was Grand Master for two terms during which nine Communications were held (see Washington, the Man and the Mason, Charles H. Callahan, 1913, pages 961-9, and New Age, July, 1924).
Charles Martel, or Charles the Hammer, born in 688, died in 741, although not actually King, was the ruler and reigned over France under the title of Mayor of the Palace. He was a notable soldier, defeating the Saracens at Poitiers in 732, and again in 737 driving them from Languedoc. Rebold (History, page 69) says that "at the request of the Anglo-Saxon lings, he sent workmen and Masters into England." The Operative Masons of the Middle Ages considered him as one of their patrons, and give the following account of him in their Legend of the Craft (see Grand Lodge Manuscript No. 1, Quatuor Coronati Lodge Reprints, volume iv).
Curious Crafts men walked about full wyde in Dyu's Countries some to learn more Craft and conning & some to teach them that had but little conning and so yt befell that their was on Curious Masson that height Naymus grecus that had byn at the making of Solomons Temple & he came into fraunce anal there he taught the Science of masonry to men of fraunce And there was one of the Regal lyne of fraunce that height Charles Martell. And he was A man that Loved well such A Craft and Drew to this Naymus grecus and Learned of him the Craft And to Nippon him the (Chardges & ye mann's. And afterward by the grace of god he was elect to be liyng of fraunce. And when he was in his Estate he took Masons and did help to make men Masons yt wear none & sett them A work and gave them both the Charges & mann's and good pay that he had learned of other Masons And confirmed them A Charter from yer to year to hold their assembly whear they boulder And cherish them right much And thus came the Craft into fraunce.
The Fourth Degree of the Eastern Star; a Rite of American Adoptive Freemasonry.
The Rite of Martinism, called also the Rectified Rite, was instituted at Lyons, by the Marquis de Saint Martin, a disciple of Martinez Paschalis, of whose Rite it was pretended to be a reform. Martinism was divided into two classes, called Temples, in which were the following Degrees:
2. Fellow Craft
3. Master Mason
4. Past Master
6. Grand Architect
7. Freemason of the Secret
8. Prince of Jerusalem
9. Knight of Palestine
The Degrees of Martinism abounded in the reveries of the Mystics (see Saint Martin).
MARTINIST ORDER, AMERICAN RECTIFIED
See American Rectified Martinist Order
MARTIN, LOUIS CLAUDE DE SAINT
See Saint Martin
A title bestowed by the Templars on their last Grand Master, James de Molay. If, as Du Cange says, the Church sometimes gives the title of martyr to men of illustrious sanctity, who have suffered death not for the confession of the name of Christ, but for some other cause, being slain by impious men, then De Molay, as the innocent victim of the malignant schemes of an atrocious Pope and King, was clearly entitled to the appellation.
MARTYRS, FOUR CROWNED
See Four Crowned Martyrs
There are no known records from the earliest Lodge in Maryland but a reference to it among the documents of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts states that it was chartered by Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand Master, on August 12, 1750, at Annapolis. On June 17, 1783, the Lodges on the Eastern Shore met at Talbot Court House and determined to petition the Grand Lodge in Philadelphia for a Warrant to open the Grand Lodge of Maryland. Five Lodges were represented by Deputies and the meeting was adjourned until July 31. On that date the same Lodges attended with the exception of No. 37, of Somerset County, which was not represented, and No. 6, of Georgetown, which appeared for the first time. Grand Officers were elected and the meeting was adjourned until December 18, 1783. The next meeting was not until nearly three years later but the subordinate Lodges maintained their allegiance and were not represented at any other Grand Lodge.
Royal Arch Chapters were probably attached to most of the Lodges in Maryland, but the first known was Washington Chapter instituted in 1787 by Warrant of Lodge No. 7, at Chestertown, and attached to Lodge No. 15, afterwards Washington, No. 3. The first Independent Grand Chapter in the United States was organized on June 24, 1897. It became inactive in 1803, but was revived in 1807, when a Convention was held in the City of Washington on January 21 of representatives of Washington, Concordia, Saint John's, Federal, Washington Naval and Potomac Chapters. It was resolved unanimously to organize a Grand Chapter for the State of Maryland and the District of Columbia, and this was opened in Ample Form. On May 9, 1814, Chapters Nos. 1, 2, and 3 met at Baltimore, adopted a Construction and elected Grand Officers.. On August 30, 1822, by the authority of the General Grand Chapter, the Chapters in the District of Columbia, with the exception of Potomac, No. 8, at Georgetown, withdrew from the Jurisdiction of Maryland. For the next twenty years these Columbia Chapters had no grand authority From 1841 until May 7, 1867, they were put under the control of the Grand Chapter of Maryland. On that date the Grand Chapter of the District of Columbus was duly constituted.
Until 1872 the Select Degrees were conferred by Chapters, but in that year the Grand Chapter made this illegal and independent Councils were formed. Six of these Councils, Concordia, Jerusalem, Adoniram, Salem, Tadmor, and Druid were represented at a Convention which met on May 12, 1874, at Baltimore to organize a Grand Council.
The first Commandery was Maryland, No. 1, at Baltimore, to which a Charter of Recognition was issued on May 2, 1814, admitting the year 1790 to be the date of the complete organization of the Encampment. It was resolved on July 12, 1870, to organize a Grand Commandery for the State. Delegates from Maryland, No. 1; Baltimore, No. 2, and Monumental, No. 3, met in Baltimore, Maryland, on December 12, 1870, for this purpose. A Warrant was issued by the Grand Master dated January 3, 1871, and on January 23, the Grand Commandery was dedicated in Ancient Form to Saint John the Almoner.
A Lodge of Perfection was established at Baltimore in 1792 by Henry Wilmans, Master of Concordia Lodge in 1793. On December 9, 1882, the Meredith Chapter of Rose Croix, No. 1, and the Maryland Council of Kadosh, No. 1, were constituted, and on May 15, 1885, the Chesapeake Consistory, No. 1, was opened under the Supreme Council, Southern Jurisdiction.
The French expression is Maçon Couronne. A Degree in the nomenclature of Fustier.
MASON, DERIVATION OF THE WORD
The search for the etymology or derivation of the word Mason has given rise to numerous theories, some of them ingenious, but many of them very absurd. Thus, a writer in the European Magazine for February, 1792, who signs his name as "George Drake," Lieutenant of Marines, attempts to trace the Masons to the Druids, and derives Mason from May's on, May's being in reference to May-day, the great festival of the Druids, and on meaning men, as in the French on dit, for homme dit. According to this, May's on therefore means the Men of May. This idea is not original with Drake, since the same derivation was urged in 1766 by Cleland, in his essays on The Way to Things in Words, and on The Real Secret of Freemasons.
Hutchinson, in his search for a derivation, seems to have been perplexed with the variety of roots that presented themselves, and, being inclined to believe that the name of Mason "has its derivation from a language in which it implies some strong indication or distinction of the nature of the society, and that it has no relation to architects," looks for the root in the Greek tongue. Thus he thinks that Mason may come from Mao Soon, "I seek salvation," or from Mystes, "an initiate"; and that Masonry is only a corruption of Mesouraneo, "I am in the midst of heaven"; or from Mazourouth, a constellation mentioned by Job, or from Mysterion, "a mystery."
Lessing says, in his Ernst und Falls, that Masa in the Anglo-Saxon signifies a table, and that Masonry, consequently, is a society of the table.
Nicolai thinks he finds the root in the sow Latin word of the Middle Ages Massonya, or Masonia, which signifies an exclusive society or club, such as that of the Round Table.
Coming down to later times, we find Brother C. W. Moore, in his Boston Magazine, of May, 1844, deriving Meson from Lithotornos, a Stone Cutter. But although fully aware of the elasticity of etymological rules, it surpasses our ingenuity to get Mason etymologically out of Lithotomos.
Brother Giles F. Yates sought for the derivation of Mason in the Greek word Mazones, a festival of Dionysus, and he thought that this was another proof of the lineal descent of the Masonic Order from the Dionysiac Artificers.
Brother William S. Rockwell, who was accustomed to find all his Freemasonry in the Egyptian Mysteries and who was a thorough student of the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, derives the word Mason from a combination of two phonetic signs, the one being Mai, and signifying to love, and the other being Son, which means a brother. Hence he says, "this combination, Mason, expresses exactly in sound our word Masons and signifies literally loving brother, that is, philadelphust brother of an association, and thus corresponds also in sense."
But all of these fanciful etymologies, which would have terrified Bopp, Grimm, or Muller, or any other student of linguistic relations, forcibly remind us of the French epigrammatist, who admitted that alphna came from equus, but that, in so coming, it had very considerably changed its route."
What, then, is the true derivation of the word Mason? Let us see what the orthoepists, who had no Masonic theories, have said upon the subject.
Webster, seeing that in Spanish masa means mortar, is inclined to derive Mason, as denoting one that works in mortar, from the root of mass, which of course gave birth to the Spanish word. In Low or Medieval Latin, Mason was machio or memo, and this Du Cange derives from the Latin maceria, a long wall. Others find a derivation in machinoe, because the builders stood upon machines to raise their walls. But Richardson takes a commonsense view of the subject.
He says, "It appears to be obviously the same word as maison, a house or mansion, applied to the person who builds, instead of the thing built. The French Maisoner is to build houses; Masonner, to build of stone. The word Mason is applied by usage to a builder in stone, and Masonry to work in stone."
Carpenter gives Massom, used in 1225, for a building of stone, and Massonus, used in 1304, for a Mason; and the Benedictine editors of Du Cange define Massoneria "a building, the French Maconnerie, and Massonerius," as Latomus or a Mason, both words in manuscripts of 1385. Doctor Murray, in the New English Dictionary, says of the word Mason: "the ulterior etymology is obscure, possibly the word is from the root of Latin maceria, a wall.
As a practical question, we are compelled to reject all those fanciful derivations which connect the Freemasons etymologically and historically with the Greeks, the Egyptians, or the Druids, and to take the word Mason in its ordinary signification of a worker in stone, and thus indicate the origin of the Order from a society or association of practical and operative builders. We need no better root than the old French and Latin Maçonner, to build, or Maçonetus, a builder (see Freemason and Maçon).
Used in the Strassburg Constitutions, and other German works of the Middle Ages, as equivalent to the modern Freemasonry. Kloss translates it by Masonhood. Lessing derives it from mosa, Anglo Saxon, a table, and says it means a Society of the Table. Nicolai deduces it from the Low Latin masTanya, which means both a club and a key, and says it means an exclusive society or club, and so, he thinks, we get our word Masonry. Krause traces it to mas mase, food or a banquet. It is a pity to attack these speculations, but we are inclined to look at Masonry as simply a corruption of the English Masonrie.
The French is Maçon Hermetique. A Degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Eclectic Philosophic Rite.
MASONIC ARCHEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
This was the title of a Society founded in England about 1871. Brother Walter Besant was the Secretary though he was not an original member of the Society which was probably founded by Brother William Smith, C. E., once Editor of the Freemason or Freemasons Magazine. The objects of the Society were the advancement of those branches of archeological knowledge and research which either directly or indirectly bear upon Freemasonry. Besides the study of Freemasonry proper, the Institute was to have papers read and discuss subjects connected with mysticism and allegorical teachings in literature and philosophy; symbolism in religion and art; the development and progress of architecture; the history of secret sects, associations and brotherhoods; and similar subjects. It was understood that no papers would be published whose subjects rendered them unsuitable for the reading of those who were not Freemasons. Later on Brother Besant became Treasurer and R. G. Haliburton the Secretary.
The latter was a Freemason of Saint John's Lodge, Nova Scotia, and was the son of Judge Haliburton, author of Sam Slick. The Society was not of long life but is particularly noteworthy because several of its early members were connected with the founding of Quatuor Coronati Lodge.
See Bapttsm, Masonic, Clean Hands, and Lustration
MASONIC CIPHER MESSAGE
At Cawnpore, India, in July, 1857, occurred the massacre of hundreds of men, women and children. Of this butchery there is a pathetic record in the message of a Masonic character that was written on the wall of the Chamber of Blood. This inscription appearing in a recent issue of the Controlling Officers' Journal, was reprinted in the Transactions, Leicester Lodge of Research, 1912-3 (page 107) and as the Masonic cipher was not understood an invitation was extended the Craft to submit a clue to its meaning (see Cipher Writing).
Brother W. John Songhurst offered in reply the comment that the reproduction corresponded fairly with a photograph in his possession. But there were one or two small differences proving that they were not taken direct from the same original. For instance, the photograph shows that a blot had been erased at the word hands, and that an alteration had been made at the word Post which looks as though it had been first written Past. It is headed "The writing on the Wall in Sir H. Wheeler's Room." Brother Songhurst had been able to trace other copies, all having many features in common, but none corresponding exactly, and with some the differences are important. He proceeded in Transactions, 1913-4 (pages 71-83) to discuss the circumstances thus: At the outbreak of the Mutiny in May, 1857, Major General Sir Hugh Wheeler was in command of the Cawnpore division of the Indian Army. He at once ordered entrenchments to be constructed, and by the 21st of May these were occupied by the women and nonconubatants. It is stated that there were about one thousand Europeans in the town, of whom n ore than half were women and children. In a letter written by General Wheeler on 1st June, he says, "I have left my house, and am residing day and night in my tent."
On the 6th of June the siege commenced, and the defenders gallantly held out for three weeks. The attack was led by the adopted son of the former chief of the Mahrattas, known in history as Nana Sahib, whose claims to succession the British Government had refused to recognize. General Wheeler had with him his wife, who was of mixed blood, his son and two daughters. The son, Lieutenant Wheeler, was his Aide-de-Camp, and being severely wounded during the siege, he was carried to a room in the barracks. Here, in the presence of the whole family--father, mother and sisters--he was killed by a cannon-ball, winch, entering the building, took off his head.
On the 26th of June, Captain Moore, Captain Whiting and Mr. Roche, the postmaster, went from the trenches to arrange for capitulation, and eventually received the promise of safe conduct for all to Allahabad. Preparations were quickly made. Sepoys accompanied the fugitives to the banks of the river, but even before all were embarked in the boats, a murderous musket-fire was opened upon them, and according to one account, only four men escaped. It seems certain that General Wheeler, his wife and elder daughter were among the killed. About one hundred and twenty-five women and children were carried back to Cawnpore, including the general's youngest daughter, who was taken by one of Nana's troopers some say by Nana himself, and died a natural death in Nepal some years afterwards. The others were put into two rooms, about twenty feet by ten feet each, in a small building formerly occupied by a native clerk, close to Nana's house. Meanwhile General Havelock was hurrying to the relief.
He arrived on the 16th of July, only to find that all the prisoners had been massacred by Nana's orders, and hurled, dead and dying, into a well. sir George Trevelyan in his Cawnpore, published in 1865, says that this took place "within call of the theater, the assembly-rooms and the Masonic Lodge." Other accounts from which I have taken these particulars are The Story of Cawnpore, London, 1859, by Captain Mowbray Thomson, and A Personal Narrative of the Outbreak and Massacre at Cawnpore, Lucknow, 1879, by W. J. Shepherd. Both of these men escaped from the garrison. Thomson swam from the boats and managed to land lower down the river; Shepherd went out disguised during the siege, and was not able to return until after Havelock's occupation of the town. The cipher inscription is not mentioned in either of these narratives but Shepherd says that during the siege both he and Captain Seppings wrote messages upon the walls of the barracks in pencil. There were two barracks within the entrenchments. One is described as the Thatched Barrack, and it was burned down by the rebels. The other was called the Masonry Barrack, or the Flat-roofed Barrack, and it seems that it was in this building General Wheeler had his quarters, and in which his son was killed. Seppings was also in the Masonry Barrack, and wrote as follows:
"The following were in this barrack on 11th June, 1857, Captain Seppings, Mrs. Ditto, 3 children, Mrs. Wainwright, Ditto infant, Mr. Cripps, Mrs. Halliday."
Shepherd's inscription in the Thatched barrack was: " Should this meet the eves of any who were acquainted with us, in case we are all destroyed, be it known to them that we occupied this room for eight davs under circumstances so distressing as have no precedent. The destruction of Jerusalem could not have been attended with distress as severe as we have experienced in so short a time. W. J. Shepherd (wounded in the back), his wife and two children, Rebecca and her infant, Elnelina, Martha, old Mrs. Frost, Mrs. Osborne, Daniel, The Khoorranee, Conductor Bethell, his wife and daughter, together with other friends. 11th June, 1857."
The writing in cipher was first brought to Masonic notice in May, 1862, by a copy in the Indian Freemason's Friend, the correspondent asking if any reader could furnish an explanation. This brought a letter signed " Tatnai," dated from Lucknow, 27th July, in which it is said, that the inscription is "in many parts a string of characters devoid of significance." This fact " Tatnai" attributes to errors made by the original writer, to errors made by the copyist, and to chips of whitewash having fallen from the wall, before the copy was made. He then gives the cipher portion of the writing as it had appeared in the Journal, and adds a suggested restoration. The letter mentions "the few lines signed by J. W. Roche, just above R. A. B. Johnstone " written in plain English, and says that these include the words "nasty wound," which in a copy of his possession were written " mortally wounded." These particulars about Roche (called also Roach and Roache) do not appear in the photograph, but we find them in a copy made by R. MacCrea, of the 0. and R. Railway dated 20th July, 1887. Shepherd mentions that Roche had been wounded four times in the entrenchments, but they were only flesh wounds. He was killed on 27th of June. The same journal also printed a translation of the cipher, made by Colonel E. K. Money, which is as follows:
"Dear Jesus send His help soon and
deliver us not into
the enemy's hands.
The General's daughter is in this corner.
May God reward them according to the bloody deeds
done to this innocent girl.
This is the corner General Wheeler occupied in his distress.
The General's wife is in this corner.
The P.M. in this.This is the place where two soldiers (unintelligible)
Remember the innocent."
As both of the General's daughters survived the siege there must be some mistake in this translation, on which a critic, possibly " Tatnai " himself, writes: " Colonel Money has misinterpreted the gender of the symbol, it was the general's son who was wounded, when a cannonball. in passing through the room, carried away the head of lieutenant Wheeler in the presence of his parents and sisters. Colonel Mowbray Thomson states this . . . and Colonel Williams, the special Commissioner, states that Lady Wheeler and her two daughters were brought down to the Ghaut on an elephant. One of the daughters was carried away by a Sowar. The remark 'unintelligible' . . . must refer to the spot where the two soldiers laid Lieutenant Wheeler down. Mr. Shepherd says that the two daughters occupied the adjoining room when he saw the General on the 24th June, 1S57."
I have mentioned that MacCrea's printed leaflet is dated July 1887- It purports to have been "copied by W. J. Shepherd in July, 185d," and it contains the following which I have not found elsewhere, though in part it is referred to by "Tatnai":
"T. B. Roach wounded in right foot, shin bone fractured by shell, knee cap fractured, musket shot behind, nasty wound, musket shot in right breast. 9 th June, 1857. Adjutant Halliday, With N. I-, killed by a round shot, 9th June, 1857."
Only three lines of cipher are given, and these with all else which could not be printed in type, are inserted with pen and ink. Some notes are added, but they are not reliable as they contain, for instance, the statement that the translation by (Colonel Money appeared in the Masonic Herald for 1808, while as a matter of fact that periodical was not in existence until about l870, and as I have said, the translation was printed in the Indian Freemasons Friend in 1862. While I cannot say that I am satisfied with Colonel Money's translation, I am not able to supply another. The absence of the original writing, or an authoritative copy, renders any serious attempt at deciphering practically impossible. We do not even know for certain where it was written. If, as seems most likely, it was on a wall in the Thatched Barrack, it could scarcely have referred to General Wheeler and his family, and we know that this building was burned during the siege; while the Masonry Barrack in which General Wheeler had his quarters, was destroyed soon after Havelock's entry. "Tatnai," writing within five years of the massacre, says that the building was not then in existence, and his suggestion is that the writer had concealed something in a certain place, and hoped that after his death some Brother might be able to recover it.
There were two English Lodges at Cawnpore at the time--Sincerity, constituted in 1819 and erased in 1858 and Harmony, constituted in 1836, which still exists as No. 438. It seems likely that Johnston may have been the Master of Sincerity, but unfortunately no names were registered at Grand Lodge after 1845. Shepherd mentions a Mr. A. R. Johnston, of the E. I. Railway, who with his wife and children was killed during the siege. James Williamson Roche, postmaster, was initiated in Harmony in December, 1806, and his is the only name I am able to trace in the lists at Freemasons' Hall. It is quite possible that the Brother who wrote the cipher was a Scotch Mason. The devie eat the head undoubtedly indicates the Red Cross of Babylon, which the second line ends with letters referring to the same Degree (Red Cross Knight), and one would not expect this to have been put forward prominently, in an English Lodge, at so late a date.
On the other hand a Scotch Master would probably have been described as R.W.M. The interlaced triangles which appear sometimes at the foot, and sometimes in the center of the copies, may be taken as referring to the Royal Arch, but it is not impossible that they may also indicate the key to the cipher. Colonel Money's translation seems to imply that the prayer was also written in cipher, while MacCrea's version points to a sense of inscriptions in the form of a diary, or record of events, during the siege, and Shepherd's statements rather bear out this view. It may be merely a coincidence that on the 17th of June, the date given on the photograph, a daughter of Shepherd was killed by a chance musket shot. If Colonel Money was right in his translation of "daughter" there is just a possibility that this u the incident referred to. In any case it seems that the mystery will not be cleared up, unless and until we have before us a correct copy of the writing as it originally appeared Only one thing can be stated with certainty: that it had no reference whatever to either of the two massacres but to occurrences which took place before the attempted escape by the boats.
MASONIC HOMES OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
Alabama Arizona. Arkansas. California. Colorado. Connecticut. Delaware. District of Columbia. Florida. Georgia. Idaho. Illinois. Indiana. Iowa. Kansas. Kentucky. Louisiana. Maine. Massachusetts. Michigan. Minnesota. Mississippi. Missouri. Montana. Nebraska. Nevada. New Hampshire. New Jersey. New Mexico. New York. North Carolina. North Dakotas Ohio. Oklahoman Oregon . Pennsylvania Rhode Island. South Carolina. South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas. Utah. Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia. Wisconsin Wyoming. CANADA Alberta. British Columbia. Manitoba. Nora Scotia. Prince Edward Island . Ontario. Saskatchewan.
MASONIC HOMES OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
The reader in this connection may look over the allied items dealing with Charity, Orphans, Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada, Children's Exchange Bureau, Shrine Hospitals for Crippled Children, each of which will contribute some information as to the Masonic urge to provide systematic loving care for the dependent. The Masonic Home and its adjuncts, as the Infirmary in Nebraska and the Sanitarium in Iowa, hold an honored place in Masonic activities. Their beneficiaries are guests of the Fraternity and the several branches of the organization have given generously toward the success of this worthy object. Brotherly moue is the proper expression of the attitude of the Brethren to the occupants of Masonic Homes, and this term is preferable to the word Charity with the meaning often associated with it. Obviously the treatment of Masonic Homes must be condensed for such a purpose as ours. Only the leading facts can be included and these must lag behind the actual attainments as, every month in the year, some one or more Grand Lodges are receiving annual reports on Masonic Homes and enlarging their service.
Brother Frank S. Moses, Past Grand Master of Iowa, prepared in 1923 a report of the activities in Masonic Homes, Brother Jesse M. Whited in his Correspondence Report of She Grand Lodge of California has also summarized the situations and these general surveys of the field have been supplemented by numerous local articles at various times. These items have been checked with the co-operation of the various officials throughout the country.
Alabama has men, women, boys and girls as guests at a Masonic Home and School near Montgomery. The Grand Lodge has here 275 acres of land, 40 of which are in a beautiful grove, 100 in pasture and the balance devoted to the raising of food crops and carried on at a profit. The property includes a library, auditorium, a main building, cottages for the guests, hospital building, operating room, dental parlor, nurses' quarters, school building, a separate infirmary for old men and many other structures representing an investment of $450,000 and a large sum has been invested in beautifying the grounds, driveways, etc. The Grand Lodge dues annually are $1 for each Master Mason in good standing, 90 cents of which goes to the Home and 10 cents is applied to maintaining old Freemasons and their wives and widows on the monthly pension system administered by the Local Lodges. Three dollars is also obtained for the maintenance or normal income of the Home for each Fellow Craft passed during the year; the Grand Chapter donates annually $25 per capita for every Royal Arch Mason; the Grand Commandery usually gives $2,000 a year. The Lodges also take up a voluntary contribution just before each annual meeting. The total income of the Home is about $75,000 a year and expenses have averaged $6,000 per month. Alabama has also inaugurated an Endowment Fund amounting to about $10,000 to be materially increased each year.
Arizona assesses $10 from every initiate and affiliate for the Masonic Home Endowment Fund, and 50 cents every year is collected and paid into the Masonic Home General Fund for each Brother on the roll of membership on December 31. The combined funds were $202,624; $114,372 being in the Masonic Home Endowment Fund, and $88,252 in the Masonic Home General Fund. There is a Sanatoria for the care of tubercular patients at Oracle, a summer resort village in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains, forty miles from Tucson. The site of sixty acres and the house with sixteen rooms are valued at $60,000. Grand Lodge Committee spent a further $8,000 erecting three four-room cottages and improving the main building. This Home has had no facilities, however, for giving medical or nursing care or for handling bedridden patients, only those being able to care for themselves being received as guests.
Arkansas maintains an Orphans Home and also a Relief and Pension Fund for Widows. It has had guests at the Home at an annual expense of $425 each. It derives funds from $1 per member, $11 fee and interest on investments of $200,000. The Orphans Home received 50 cents per member and $8 for fees of the Three Degrees out of the above, aggregating approximately $40,000 per annum. Pension and Relief Fund is made up by a $7,000 appropriation by Grand Lodge and approximately $5,000 voluntary contributions by Lodges annually.
California maintains two Masonic Homes, one at Decoto, Alameda County, which was dedicated in 1898, and is a Home for Aged Freemasons and their adult dependents, and the other located at Covina, Los Angeles County, for Dependent Children of Freemasons. By 1910 their Permanent Improvement Fund had risen to $17,000 and the previous year, 1909, Jacob Hart Nebb died, leaving the residue of his estate, amounting to $12,688 to the Decoto Home. The balance in the Permanent Improvement Fused was added to this, the two being called a Permanent Endowment Fund, which has now gone over the S480,000 mark. The capital is not touched, only the interest on investments being used. These Homes include-hospital units and guests have been maintained at these homes for $500 each yearly. The hospital may accommodate 70 patients, largely those that are helpless from the infirmities of age. The cost of maintaining children in the Home at Covina has been $600 per year each. The two Institutions represent an investment of some $1,621,689. Funds are raised from a $20 fee for each initiate or affiliate and 25 cents each year from each member.
The Colorado Masons Benevolent Fund Association is practically a Committee of the Grand Lodge and has been in existence since 1902 and has accumulated in twenty-three years approximately S86,000. Lodges pay as dues to the Grand Lodge $1 annually for every member under sixty years of age and 10 per cent of that amount goes to the Benevolent Fund. The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of Colorado annually contributes to this fund 5 cents for every Royal Arch Mason. Only the income from the fund may be used for relief work. Grand Lodge created another fund of $40,000 for the relief of Freemasons who were in the military or naval service of the United States or for their relatives, and such relief is extended upon the recommendation of the Master of the Lodge where the Brother held membership. There is also a Grand Lodge Committee which cares for Freemasons in the two Government Hospitals in the State. One of these, near Denver, is for tubercular cases and has patients from all over the country.
The other is at Las Animas. The funds necessary for this Committee are provided by the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery to the amount of $5,000 yearly. Members of the Committee visit these Brethren in hospitals every Sunday with flowers and theft furnish entertainment every week. Their families are assisted with advice and money when necessary and much valuable work has been done by the Committee assisting Brethren in these institutions with regard to their compensation from the Government and in similar matters. This Soldiers and Sailors Welfare Committee consists of nine members appointed by the Grand Master to extend relief and comfort to Freemasons who were employed in the military or naval service during the World War and the lives, children and dependents of these Brethren. The Grand Lodge has also planned a fund of $15,000 for establishing scholarships for the sons and daughters of Freemasons in institutions of higher learning.
Connecticut has long supported an incorporated Masonic Charity Foundation. It has a Home and Hospital at Wallingford, valued at $600,000, the Hospital Unit having facilities for the care of 100 patients. This unit was largely paid for by special assessment of $5 for each Brother and the Eastern Star of Connecticut levied a tax of $1 per member to furnish and equip it. It has an Endowment Fund of $100,000. Here at the Home in Ballingford are adult guests, of whom one-third ma! be classed as permanently helpless infirmary cases. They have been maintained at an average cost of $460 for each guest per year. The Grand Lodge also assists other needy cases in outside locations. Connecticut Freemasons pay $2.15 per annum for charity and $10 is collected from each initiate or affiliate.
Delaware has a Home at Wilmington for the aged and indigent, each Lodge contributing annually for its maintenance $2 per capita, $10 for every affiliation during the year and $10 for every candidate initiated. There is an investment in real estate and equipment of $29,480. The auditor's report of 1924 showed a total investment of $178,000. Delaware also has arranged for the distribution of four scholarships each year of $125 each in memory of their first Grand Master, Gunning Bedford, Jr. These may be used in any school or college grade, but the Committee having charge of the awards prefer the University of Delaware. If the student makes progress in his studies the scholarship will be continued for four years. Contributions to this will also be received from the subordinate Lodges in proportion to their membership, the fund being gradually increased each year.
District of Columbia Freemasons established a Home and Infirmary about 1914, valued at $150,000, which shelters adults and children. Its maintenance expense has been annually about $520 for each guest. An Endowment Fund of $107,000 has been accumulated. Each District Freemason contributes 75 cents annually for this charity, and each initiate $5.
Florida has a Masonic Home on a ten acre site at St. Petersburg which, with the improvements there, represents an investment of $103,000. This property was purchased at a Sheriff's Sale and has since then attracted an offer for it of S250,000. The assessment upon the Brethren for the support of the Home is $1 per capita and for emergency relief 25 cents. There is a $5 assessment upon every initiate for the Masonic Home Building Fund, which is not applied to maintenance but restricted to new work for bettering the Home facilities. There are two Relief Committees. The Emergency Committee comprises three members, appointed by the Grand Master, to handle all relief for members of Lodges in the State and the Fund for that purpose is obtained by the per capita tax plus a special appropriation turned over to the Committee at the close of each Grand Communication. If this amount is not sufficient the Committee has authority to supply deficiencies from the Masonic Home Fund.
Relief is furnished on the request of Lodges, where the applicant is worthy and the Lodge unable to furnish the required relief and on the approval of the Committee the relief is granted, a smalls monthly allowance being considered better when enabling applicants to remain at their residences rather than at the Masonic Home. The Masonic Relief Committee, as in Jacksonville, comprises one member from each of the five local Lodges and is supplied with funds by them on request of the Committee and then an appropriation of 25 cents per member is turned over to the fund, which is used exclusively for sojourning Brethren and not for Florida Freemasons. Each local Lodge has its own Special Committee for the relief of its members.
The Masonic Orphan's Home is four miles from the City of Macon on the hills overlooking the valley of the Ocmulgee River where there is a farm of 152 acres under a competent agriculturist to instruct the hoss. There is also a print-shop with Linotype Machines, presses and other equipment and with an instructor to teach ten of the boys at a time. The Come is for Children only none being accepted under five nor over fifteen years. The endowment in 1925 was $175,000. The Grand Lodge dues are $1 per capita yearly and 45 cents goes to the maintenance of the me. Widows, as w elf as elderly or decrepit members, are supported in their own home communities from fund of $120,000 appropriated annually by the Strand Lodge. This fund is administered by a Committee of Relief, which as a rule pays the individual compliant an amount equal to that given by the local or interested Lodge.
At the session of 1869, Idaho Freemasonry, with seven Lodges and a combined membership of 279, established the Orphan's Fund by an annual assessment of $1 per member for "the support and duration of the orphans of deceased members or the Children of indigent Freemasons whom the Grand Lodge might deem worthy of assistance." The principal must remain intact forever and the fund was placed in the control of a Board of Trustees consisting the Grand Master and the Grand Wardens, hut in 86 provision was made for a Board of three members elected annually by the Grand Lodge. The annual assessment was reduced to 50 cents in 1895. An amendment was adopted in 1885 whereby the benefits of the fund were also applied to "the support and clothing of poor and indigent Freemasons." Since that time the proper title for the fund has been the Grand Lodge Orphan and Indigent Fund." mother amendment was passed in 1909 providing or the support and clothing of indigent widows of deceased Freemasons. The fund grew from $294 in 1870 to $117,089 in 1923.
There was expended for relief in 1890, $289 and in 1923, $4,875. The Trustees lo not deal with individual cases or applications except through the Lodges. Applications are made through the Lodge Officers and when preparations are made, the check is sent to the Worshipful Master and he is responsible for spending the appropriation in his best judgment. There may be expenses not filling within the laws providing for the expenditure in this fund such, for example, as funeral expenses, but the Trustees do not consider these as coming rithin their jurisdiction and they must be taken care of by the Lodge or from some other source.
Illinois has a Masonic Home and Hospital at Sullivan on a fine farm donated to the Grand Lodge for that purpose. Adult guests are fraternally cared for there. The Masonic Horne for Children is at La Grange, a suburb of Chicago, and trains children for useful citizenship. The realty value and investment in these institutions approximates $1,000,000, and the operating expenses have been $200,000 annually or a little over $400 per annum per guest. The Freemasons of Illinois contribute 62½ cents per capita annually and the appropriations and donations from other Masonic Bodies and interested Brethren amply support these worthy establishments.
Indiana has a splendid Home at Franklin, on an estate of 270 acres. The land and buildings are valued at approximately $1,250,000. The Order of the Eastern Star, Knights Templar and Scottish Rite have been very liberal in contributing toward the erection of the necessary buildings and the support of the Home and Hospital. Here are entertained adults and children at an annual operating cost of $347 per guest. An Endowment Fund of $200,000 has been accumulated. The Grand Lodge per capita for the Home is $1 and .$5 is charged for each Initiate, the latter being placed in the Endowment Fund.
Since 1894 Iowa has disbursed its benevolence through a Grand Charity Fund administered by a Board of three Trustees. This fund was started with an allotment of 10 cents per capita and used to supplement the benevolence of constituent Lodges as required. This per capita allotment has been increased several times and Special appropriations have been made from the general funds. This plan is most satisfactory in that it permits approved beneficiaries to live in familiar or chosen environment under the fraternal supervision of a local Trustee to whom the funds for each case have been remitted. Excess of receipts in this fund accruing through balances, donations and special appropriations have been converted into a permanent Grand Charity Fund, which amounted to $400,000 in 1925. In 1923 the Grand Lodge authorized an increase of $1 per capita in Grand Lodge dues for the establishment and operation of a Sanitarium; in 1925 the purchase of a piece of property for the purpose was approved and the institution is for the care of elderly and feeble dependents, with facilities for approximately one hundred guests.
The rules of admission to the Sanitarium are that "only those persons who are in need of daily nurse care shall be admitted to the Sanitarium or permitted to remain therein. No person shall be admitted to the Sanitarium who can be suitably eared for by allowances from the Grand Charity Fund; nor shall anyone be admitted against his will so long as he can be properly cared for elsewhere at a cost not to exceed the per capita cost of maintenance at the Sanitarium." The investment is about $200,000, including equipment, etc. Gland Lodge also derives income from a $10 fee for each initiate.
Kansas has a Home at Wichita for Freemasons, their wives, widows and orphans, valued at S350,000, and an Endowment Fund of $140,000. The Home entertains adult guests and children and has operated at an annual expense of $306 for each guest. The Home became overcrowded and additions were ordered in 1924, a $2 assessment being levied on each of its members. The regular per capita tax for charity is 50 cents and $5 is collected for each Brother personally when raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason.
Kentucky was a pioneer in providing for its indigent Freemasons and their dependent wives, widows and orphans It has a Widows and Orphans Home at Louisville, with a valuation of $375,000. This Home contains adults and children and has operated at a yearly expense of $182 for each guest. Kentucky also maintains an Old Masons Home at Shelbyville where guests busy themselves on a small farm valued at $120.000. .&n Educational Endowment of $160,000 has been accumulated. The total accumulation of its Endowment Funds is $1,000,000; its per capita tax is $1.75 which includes the price of a Home Journal at 50 cents which is published by the Grand Lodge, and an Amendment provides for a fee of $10 from each Master Mason to apply to the Endowment Fund. In addition to these splendid achievements in the name of charity, it appointed a Committee to raise $1,600,000 by subscriptions payable over a term of years, to provide enlarged and modern facilities for the Home and Hospital.
Louisiana has disbursed relief from a permanent fund of $100,000 at the disposition of the Grand Master. A Home for Orphans was opened in 1925 at Alexandria and represented an investment of $250,000. The support of this institution has been from $1 per capita and $1 for each Degree conferred. Provision has also been made for a Home for the Aged.
The Grand Lodge of Maine distributes the income from a Charity Fund to beneficiaries direct through the Lodges. This invested fund of $85,000 is safely guarded by a constitutional provision that only the income can be used and no part of the principal expended. From 1864 the Grand Lodge operated this plan on an annual per capita tax of 20 cents and increased the Charity Fund from about $65,000 to the above amount. In 1924 the per capita tax was increased to 50 cents. The Lodges make application for their dependent members on blanks of prescribed form. These are submitted to the Committee on Distribution of Funds of the Board of Trustees. The total amount of money available is divided into units and the Committee votes to give the respective beneficiaries one, two or more of these units as the individual need requires. A check for the total sum appropriated is sent to the Worshipful Master of the Lodge of which the beneficiary is a member and he pays it out in installments as they are required. A typical case is that of an old lady who died at eighty-five and who had been dependent upon the Masonic Bodies for over twenty years. The Grand Lodge allowed her $150 a year with a like amount coming from the Grand Chapter, the local Lodge donating yearly from $75 to $100, with other gifts from the Chapter, Council and Commandery. This amount maintained a home for this lady among her old friends.
Massachusetts established a Home at Charlton in 1911, on a farm of 300 acres. The value of the Home is approximately $200,000 and it has cared for adult guests at an operating expense of $614 each per year. It has a Special Endowment of S363,000. This venerable Jurisdiction has maintained many charities. The Brethren have a General Charity Fund, a Rainy Day Fund, a \Var Relief fund, and finance a Masonic Employment bureaus 1 he total funds grouped under the head of Masonic Home and Educational Trust comprise several distinct funds and aggregate 31,389,000. $5 is collected from each initiate for the Grand Charity Fund. The charity work is provided for by the income of the funds and such appropriation from the current funds of the Grand Lodge as may be needed.
Michigan established a Home and Hospital at Alma in 1911, valued at some $300,000, including hospital facilities of 30 beds. The average expense has been about $560 per annum. It is interesting to note also that the average age of the guests is nearly 75 years. Michigan also disburses relief from a separate Charity Fund, and builds up a Reserve Maintenance Fund and a Building Fund for its Home and Hospital. Fifty cents per member goes to these purposes annually. In 1924 the Grand Lodge decided to devote an additional $1 for each member to a Fund to be used for another Home to be operated on the Cottage Plan.
Minnesota has had for years a Masonic Home managed by a separately incorporated Body and supported by individual subscriptions and appropriations from the Grand Lodge. The Grand Lodge took steps to assume the practical control of the Institution and greatly extended its usefulness by the construction, equipment and maintenance of an adequate Home and Hospital. A $500,000 fund for this purpose was subscribed. Another $100,000 was pledged for an endowment of this project. Minnesota has long had a Relief Fund from which disbursements have been made to all worthy beneficiaries according to their necessities, having a balance of $112,472 in that Fund in 1925. Revenue for the Masonic Home will be derived from $1 per capita of its membership and $5 from each initiate.
Mississippi maintains two Homes, one at Meridian, valued at $175,000, which cares for children, with all necessary equipment, including a well-managed hospital. The other Home, valued at $100,000, is located at Columbus. The operating expense of the Meridian Home has been reported at $28,734.67 per year, and the Columbus Home at $22,192.87. A farm was acquired by donation, covering 343 acres where the boys of the Homes reside and receive splendid vocational education and training as farmers. The charitable revenue is derived from $t per capita tax and $10 from those taking the Degrees. Grand Lodge authorized the creation of a fund of $20,000 for the erection of a hospital building at the State Sanatorium for tubercular patients and during 1924 Grand Lodge gave a supplement of $5,000 for this purpose. The Hospital Unit was completed in 1925 and named the Masonic Unit. The Masonic Home Maintenance Fund also contributes each vear a large sum of money to persons outside of the Home upon the recommendation of the Finance Committee. The Grand Lodge of Mississippi had a total Endowment Fund of $270,825, its Murphy-Martin Educational Endowment Fund alone amounting to $104,739.
Missouri has a beautiful Masonic Home at St. Louis, established in 1889, which houses both adults and children. A splendid Hospital was added to the plant in 1915; adult guests and children have been cared for by the Missouri Brethren at a cost of about $450 each per year. The total valuation of the assets in 1925 was S?1,380?000 including an Endowment Fund of $508,690. Charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of $1.50 and a $10 fee for the Degrees.
Montana opened its Masonic Home near Helena for Aged, Infirm and Destitute Masons and their widows in 1909. The original buildings cost $103,500 and were erected out of the proceeds of a per capita annual tax of $1 per member, and in addition thereto was purchased the site containing 590 acres, costing $10,000, a part of which price nas contributed. It has an Endowment Fund consisting of $24,328 cash and 13,000 acres of land given by the will of the late David Auchard, a wealthy cattle man and land owner of Lewis and Clark County, who died in 190 ; sultry bequests from others amounting to $7,000 and $"5,000 from the late William .s. Clark, Past Grand Master and former United States Senator from Montana. The net worth of the Home is over 5300,000. Guests have been maintained here at a per capita cost of $410 per year. The Home is Supported by $1 per capita annual assessment on all the Freemasons in the State, in addition to receipts from its Endowment Fund. Grand Lodge in 1923 placed a $10 initiation fee upon all candidates for the Entered Apprentice Degree, which goes to the Permanent Building Fund of the Home. In 1922 request was made of each Montana Freemason to make a voluntary offering of $10 for the purpose of erecting new buildings, this covering a period of five years. From that has been realized $21,907, which has been used to defray the cost of a new heating plant. A hospital unit has also been added.
There are Masonic Homes at Plattsmouth and Fremont. The Nebraska Masonic Home at Plattsmouth is a corporation, the Grand Lodge owning a large majority of the stock. The building, grounds and furniture cost $125,000 with an Infirmary valued at $140,000. The Grand Lodge appropriated $100,000 for the Infirmary, the Grand Chapter and the Grand Commandery $10,000 each, and the Nebraska Masonic Home paid the balance. The Home had a fund of $170,000 in bonds and mortgages in 1925. The War Relief Fund then amounted to $31,660 and the Orphan's Educational Fund $125,677. The Grand Lodge yearly dues are $2, 75 cents going to the Nebraska Masonic Home, 75 cents to the General Fund and 50 cents to the Building and Improvement Fund. S10 are collected from each initiation, $5 going to the General Fund and $5 to the Building and Improvement Fund. A fee of $10 for affiliation is collected on those whose demits are more than one year old. The Trustees of the Home pay annuities to dependent members or their families at their own homes or other institutions. The Home for Children at Fremont has building, grounds and furniture valued at $140,000 and this is managed by a Board appointed by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge and the Grand Matron of the Order of the Eastern Star, each Body contributing funds for the support of this Home.
The Grand Lodge had in 1925 a Charity Fund of $2,512 to which every year ten percent of the net revenues are added. Charity and relief are administered directly by the Lodes, the smaller ones being, helped out by the Grand Lodge. As this record was written, a Lodge assumed the guardianship and education of two orphans. While aid to neighboring needy Brethren is given from the Grand Lodge Fund, gifts have been made to fire sufferers in Chicago and San Francisco, to assist the New Mexico and other sanitariums to building schools at Tokyo, etc. Nevada reports that real relief is handled in a masterly way by the Local Lodges, covering every charitable requirement.
New Hampshire established a Home at Manchester in 1903 at which time it was Valued at $30,000 and which cares for adult guests, which has since been enlarged by an addition valued at about $80,000 and which includes a modern infirmary. The Home is partially sustained by an Endowment of $50,000. They further have a War Relief Fund of $12,000, and a General Relief Fund of $12,000 from which they assisted worthy applicants. Charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of 75 cents, an initiation fee of $10 and an affiliation fee of $10.
New Jersey maintains a Home' and Orphanage near Burlington, on a large farm, the property being valued at $700,000. It there provides for adults and youthful guests. It has adequate hospital facilities for the sick and aged. The operating expense was about $530 each per year, and the Home has an endowment of $70,000. Charitable revenue is derived from 31 per capita and $10 from each initiate.
New Mexico Grand Lodge has a Masonic Home Fund, started in 1889, which amounted to over $72,000 in 1925. The Grand Chapter and Grand Commandery also had funds amounting to $9,000 and $3,100 respectively in 1925. A Grand Lodge Masonic Relief Fund assists aged and indigent Brethren and their widows and orphans. Applications for relief are made through a Lodge to the Grand Lodge and the appropriation is paid monthly through the Lodges. The constituent Lodge affords all possible assistance before applying to the Grand Lodge Relief Fund. At any time that the Grand Lodge Masonic Relief Fund is insufficient to cover necessary disbursements, the Grand Master directs that additional sums be transferred from the General Fund. $6,100 has been expended in one year from this Relief Fund. New Mexico has a particularly difficult problem, due to the large number of Brethren afflicted with tuberculosis who come from all parts of the United States.
The Grand Lodge Masonic Tubereular Sanatorium Committee, has "expressed the hope that our Sister Jurisdictions of Arizona and Texas would see their way clear to assist in furthering a national movement." The Committee on Grand Master's Address recommended that "we seek the co-operation in perfecting the necessary organization of the Grand Jurisdictions of Arizona, Texas and Oklahoma, and take all necessary steps to develop this important undertaking." At the United States Veterans Hospital No. 55, located at Fort Bayard, there is a Masonic Club known as the Sojourners' Club, to which the Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter and Grand Comrnandery of New Mexico, as well as Ballut Abyad Temple, Albuquerque, and constituent Lodges, Chapters, Commanderies and individual Brethren have contributed materially to its Building, Furnishing and Relief Funds. From the time of the inception of the Sojourners' Club, the Grand Lodge of New Mexico has annually contributed $1,200, this amount having been increased in 1925 to $1,500 per annum.
This is in addition to other donations from time to time to the Club. The Club Building was furnished early in 1923, and Leon M. Abbott, of the Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, contributed $26,000. Among the additional larger donors were: The Grand Lodge of California, $1,000; Grand Lodge of New York, S2,500; Grand Lodge of Texas, $1,000; Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, $2,50.0; Grand Lodge of New Jersey, S1,500; the Supreme Council, Scottish Rite for the Southern Jurisdiction, $1,000, and the Grand Lodge of New Mexico, $1,000. The Grand Bodies and Brethren of other Jurisdictions continue to contribute generously to the Club Relief Fund. The Grand Lodge, in the development of what is known as the Fort Bayard Undertaking, receives, through its Grand Secretary, contributions which are paid out by Grand Lodge warrants on requisitions approved by the Club Committee. The Club expended $5,000 from the Relief Fund alone in 1925. Work of a similar nature has also been done at the United States Marine Hospital at Fort Stanton. A Student Loan Fund is one of the activities of the Grand Lodge, enabling worthy young men and women to pursue their studies in accredited Universities by loans advanced by the Student Loan Fund Committee. Each year $2,00.0 is placed in this Fund from the Grand Lodge General Fund. The source of income for relief purposes comes from a S2 per capita tax for each Master Mason returned annually, $1 of which goes to the Masonic Home Fund, 50 cents to the Masonic Relief Fund and 50 cents to the Student Loan Fund. Plans were carried through energetically for the building of the Masonic Home and School.
New York has a splendid Home and Hospital at Utica It there cares for adults and children, with every necessary provision for their comfort and education. A splendid Memorial Hospital, with a capacity of 225 beds, has been dedicated. The annual operating expense of this Home and Hospital amounted to $400,000. The valuation of this property approximates $1,750,000. The Grand Lodge has accumulated a substantial endowment for this institution. The total of its other various special funds is over $1,000,000. Its revenue available for charitable purposes from all sources approximates $400,000 a year. The Grand Lodge of New York further distributes annually some $30,000 to beneficiaries outside of the Home. Many of the Lodges and districts provide for institutional care of their own members. The charitable revenue is derived from a per capita tax of 50 cents to meet current expense, and initiation fees of $3.50. The independent activities carried on in various cities and districts render it impossible to make an adequate review of the total of Masonic charity in this Jurisdiction. One of the early contributions to the Home was made by Edwin Thomas Booth, the famous American tragedian, who bestowed $5,000 upon the Home at Utica.
North Carolina maintains a Home for Children at Oxford, with a farm and dairy herd in connection with the Home, the entire property being valued at about $750,000. The project includes such departments as a Printing Plant, Electrical Department, a Shoe Shop, Laundry and Sewing Rooms and also has an accredited Eight School. A large percentage of the children are non-Masonic, the institution never having been limited to one class of orphans. This Home has always had the hearty support of all the people of the State, owing to the reputation it has ever maintained for the generous care and liberal education of its guests. Its annual income has amounted to $161,331, derived from Local Lodges, individual contributions, appropriations from Grand Lodge and from the State of North Carolina, as well as proceeds from Departments of the Home such as the Singing Class, the Printing Office and Electric Shop. Children have been maintained here at a cost of $309 for each guest per year, exclusive of profits from activities in Departments before mentioned, or $270 each per year, taking into consideration these proceeds. Another Masonic Rome is operated at Greensboro by the Freemasons in conjunction with the Eastern Star and is for Old People, being valued at $100,000, and where adult guests have been cared for at $778 for each per year. The Grand Lodge of North Carolina levies a tax of $10 on each initiate, which goes into the Charity Fund, and from which appropriations are made for charitable purposes, but there is no direct tax levied for either of the Homes by the Grand Lodge.
North Dakota disburses relief from a fund to which every Master Mason raised during the year pays $5 and the Grand Lodge has also made provision for a contribution to this purpose of 15 cents per capita from its General Fund, the original plan contemplating the accumulation of about $5,000 annually to ultimately permit the erection of a Masonic Home. This fund, at the beginning of 1925, for example, was $38,690; the amount expended during the previous year for relief was $4,424. The individual Lodges assume their share of the burden, the intent being for the Grand Lodge Relief Fund to assist them in this benevolence.
Ohio has a Masonic Home and Hospital on 400 acres near the city of Springfield. It has cared for adults and children at an operating expense of $585 each annually. It is under the control of the Grand Lodge, but is also substantially supported by the other Masonic Bodies of Ohio. The valuation of the Institution approximates $1,000,000, its splendid buildings and equipment largely financed by donations and bequests from Brethren interested in Masonic benevolence. The Grand Lodge collects $1 from each of its members for charity. Included in the grounds of the Home above mentioned are 37 acres with a beautiful building, barn, garage and chicken houses, known as the W. B. Hillman Memorial for boys, so named by the Grand Chapter in honor of Brother Hillman, who, in 1887, was one of the early advocates of the institution, at which time he was Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Ohio. Like the rest of the Home, the support of this institution comes from the annual per capita tax.
Oklahoma has erected a new group of buildings at Guthrie to accommodate all of its wards, and give the children better school facilities than were obtained at Darlington. They care for adults and children at an operating expense of $328 per guest. Valuable property acquired at an early date enables them to expend $500,000 on this project and establish a healthy reserve fund. Their charity revenue is derived from $1.50 per capita and $1 for each Degree conferred. Other adult beneficiaries are provided for at their own homes.
Oregon has a Masonic Home, S350,000 having been raised for that purpose by voluntary contributions from the Craft, including $50,000 contributed by the Order of the Eastern Star. The Home has a value of S420,000. Yearly dues for the Home are $1 per member, $5 for each Entered Apprentice Degree conferred and $5 on each affiliate from outside the State for the Maintenance Fund; $5 on each Entered Apprentice Degree conferred and $5 on each affiliate from outside the State for the Building Fund. there is an Educational Fund with an irreducible principal of 5990,000, the income from which is used to assist in the education of 100 children yearly in the grammar and high schools. There is a revolving Student Loan Fund of $6,000 which is loaned to students in colleges and universities in amounts not to exceed 3300, repayable at 4% interest.
Pennsylvania, about the beginning of this
century, took up the establishment of Masonic Homes and secured
a tract of 1,000 acres at Elizabethtown between Lancaster and
Harrisburg, including some forty-nine farms. Guests were received
and housed in one of the farm buildings about 1910. Children were
first admitted in 1913, though the Boys Home was not opened until
June 1, 1914, and the Girls Home in January, 1915. All these buildings
have since been abandoned. Grand Lodge Hall, valued at over $400,000,
was occupied by adult guests in August, 1913. In 1914 the Boys
were housed in a temporary building, and the Girls in another
farm house in 1915. A gift from Brother NV. Harry Brown and Mrs.
Brown has since been used to build the Brown Home for Boys, costing
$95,000. The John Smith Home for Boys was opened in June, 1925,
costing $250,000, with an Endowment of $200,000 executed by an
agreement. The boys, upon reaching a certain age and attaining
a certain grade in school, are transferred to the Thomas Ranken
Patton Masonic Institution for Boys, built upon a farm adjoining
the Homes tract. This was provided for under the will of Brother
Patton, for many years the Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge.
December 3, 1924, the Trustees reported a balance in hand of $1,545,105. Various branches of manual training are taught, the boys also continuing studying in the public schools. The girls are now housed in the Louis H. Eisenlohr Home for Girls, valued at $140,000. Louis Eisenlohr's brother, Charles J., and his sister Mary Eisenlohr, contributed $10,000 for furnishing this Home. Sick guests of the Pennsylvania Homes are cared for in the Philadelphia Freemasons Memorial Hospital, costing $320,000 completely furnished; capacity, 110 beds. After its three units were finished the Philadelphia Brethren handed Grand Lodge the balance of the fund to provide increased hospital accommodations as needed, amounting to $91,945, December 3, 1924. Since 1913, when Grand Lodge Hall was opened, there have been erected: John Henry Daman Memorial Cottage costing $41,000, Brother Daman having bequeathed his entire estate to Grand Lodge; Paul L. Levis Memorial Cottage costing $33,000; Gustavus Croetzinger Memorial, a completely equipped laundry, $12,000; Berks County Memorial, $33,000; Blair County Memorial, $7,000; Dauphin County Memorial, $80,000; Cumberland Valley Memorial, $8,000; Allegheny County Memorial, $336,000; and Lancaster County Memorial, $111,000. Illustrating the generosity of the Brethren, it may be noted that the per capita giving of those of Dauphin County was about S35 and of Lancaster County about $43. $10,000 was provided by the mother of Brother George M. McCandless from the estate, the income of which is used for the comfort of women guests in the Hospital. Grand Lodge has several legacies amounting to nearly $150,000, with which to build as future needs require. Strs. Exate E. Sell, widow of Brother John S. Sell, has given $100,000 for a chapel as a memorial to Brother Sell and agreed to give $2O.000 more for organ chimes, etc. Numerous gifts have been made by living donors and by the wills of others in aid of the work. On December 3, 1994, Grand Lodge had the following sums coming to it under Dequests from the following estates:
Brother Henry Crux...........................$132
Brother John NV. Nvilbrahan ..............95 434
Brother James NV. Orr.........................99,000
Brother J. Barren Hale and Mrs. Hale..16,000
Brother. tlbert F. Young.........................2 000
Mrs. Elinor Splane Sproal....................32,800
(This will be augmented then real estate is sold)
The brother and sisters of Past Grand Master William L. Gorgas of Pennsylvania, January, 1924, presented to Grand Lodge securities of the par value of $50,000, to be known as the William Luther Gorgas Memorial Fund, the income to go to the maintenance of the Homes, the Committee on Homes being given power to use part of the income for the relief of minor children of deceased Pennsylvania Freemasons. Numerous wills have been probated which will pay to Grand Lodge in the near future or at the termination of life estates the following amounts:
Brother Joseph D. Wilson....................................$100
Brother Thomas B. Dornan...................................250 000
brother Samuel J. Shannon.....................................30 000
Brother Jaeoh Gottman............................................5 000
Brother Charles Crane............................................30 000
Brother Charles E. Marshall.....................................5 000
Many- small legacies have also been received by Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania since the Homes were opened. It also manages by Trustees various Funds for charitable purposes including the Stephen Taylor Bequest of 815,800 and the Charles Jackson McClary Memorial Fund of $30,000, the income from each of which is turned over to the Homes for maintenance. The expenditures at Elizabethtown have amounted to about $2,500,000, augmented by large sums spent there by individuals and groups of Lodges The Brethren whose counties have erected buildings have established Endowment Funds for their care, to which Funds additions are being made from time to time. The Philadelphia Freemasons Memorial Hospital Fund amounted tov $28,023; the Allegheny County Fund, $6,250; the Berks County Fund, $1,000; and the Homes Endowment Fund to $200,000; these figures given as of December 3, 1924. The Homes Committee has at its disposal the income of $50,000, deposited by an anonymous Brother with a Trust Company, to provide higher education for a son or daughter of a Pennsylvania Freemason in or out of the Homes.
Brother Samuel Davis left his entire estate for accumulation until it amounted to $100,000; thereafter three-fourths of the income to be used for the relief of the children of deceased Master Masons of the State, and to be applied to keeping up the home life where a Brother dies leaving a widow and children. The Lodge of which the Brother was a member applies for a blank petition to be filled up by the mother and then the Lodge determines the amount to be allotted and agrees to pay one-half. Payments are made through the Lodge and every half year a report is made by it to the Committee on homes showing its receipts, the payments and the standing of the orphans in school, the home conditions and whether the aid continues necessary.
The Masonic Homes of Pennsylvania are maintained by direct appropriations by Grand Lodge and income on the estates and funds referred to herein. Every initiate pays, in addition to the fee fixed by the By-Laws of the Lodge, the sum of $40 which goes into the treasury of Grand Lodge marked as Masonic Homes Fees, winch have been more than sufficient to run the Homes, the surplus having been put into a Masonic Homes Reserve Fund amounting to over $250,000.
The Grand Lodge of Rhode Island in 1912
inaugurated a movement to establish a fund for the erection of
a Masonic Home, at the same time appropriating $2,000 as a nucleus,
to be augmented each year by a 10 cents per capita tax. Lodges
and individual members are encouraged to donate such sums as they
are able. In 1923 Grand Lodge voted to direct the Lodges to collect
an additional fee of $o from each candidate for the Entered Apprentice
Degree to be added to the Masonic Home Fund and which in 1925
amounted to over $40,000. A Board of five Trustees invest and
re invest this Fund and may use the income only thereof, with
the approval of the Grand Master, for the relief of, and for charitable,
educational and welfare work among Freemasons, their families
or widows and orphans. The individual Lodges of Rhode Island make
every effort to handle this benevolent work among their own members,
appealing to the Grand Lodge only when necessity demands.
There is also an Educational Fund, established in 1923, which is created and maintained by an assessment of $1 per annum levied on each Master Mason within the Jurisdiction, and which enables a number of young men and women to continue their studies by providing College Scholarships to them. A Masonic Service Board also serves the Brethren by relieving distress in many ways such as obtaining employment for those in need and otherwise rendering aid and assistance.
The Grand Lodge of South Carolina instituted a Fund in 1907 for the erection of a Masonic Home and Orphanage, to which Fund were assigned all the surplus revenues of Grand Lodge. When this Fund should reach $100,000 the question of building was to be entertained. Meanwhile, such cases of present need were to be relieved by able Trustees of the Fund. By the time this Fund had actually reached the figure set, the Brethren had decided that it would be a much better policy to care for aged and indigent Freemasons and their wives or widows in their own homes or among their friends and to care for orphans the same way, by arranging for their support and maintenance at their own homes with their widowed mother, if they had one, and, if not, by having them cared for in the various orphanages already established in the State. In 1924, in lieu of the former method of adding to the Fund, an amendment to the Constitution was adopted which provided for an assessment annually of $1 per member of each Lodge. In 1925 the Fund amounted to $135,000, the interest on which, added to the $1 per capita tax, increases the Fund by about $30,000 each year, which is about the amount paid out each year. There are five Trustees to the Fund, none of whom receive any compensation.
The Grand Lodge of South Dakota receives 50 cents from each member of the Fraternity, taken out from the Grand Lodge dues for benevolent purposes. A Fund amounting to $118,025 is handled through a Board of Trustees, the interest only being used for charitable distribution among the needy. Conditions in South Dakota have not warranted the maintenance of a Masonic Home, it having been found preferable to distribute the funds where needed in the manner suggested above.
Tennessee established a Widows and Orphans Home at Nashville in 1892 and has provided an Old Masons Home and special building for infirmary. The properties represent an investment of $353,773, but the Board of Control in 1925 recommended that a cash fund be set up to meet the loss by depreciation of buildings and equipment, this being prorated as 3 per cent on brick structures, 2h per cent on stone, and 10 per cent on equipment and furnishings. On farm implements and trucks there is assigned a depreciation of 25 per cent. The Endowment Fund was $200,000. Hospital attendance is furnished. Homes operate on a budget system apt proved by the Ways and Means Committee of the Grand Lodge, which furnishes the funds. It was recommended that a voluntary offering of at least $1 per year for five years be pledged for permanent improvements, and after one year, was changed to a special tax of $1 per year for two years for each member of the subordinate Lodges and the result is a new fireproof, three-story dormitory for widows and their children. A new auditorium adjoining the school building is due to the generosity of the Order of the Eastern Star.
Texas has two Masonic Homes, one at Fort Worth which combines a Home, School and Hospital for Orphan Children and is on 210 acres of land, with a total valuation of $1,600,000. There is a Home for the Aged Masons, established in 1911 at Arlington, where widows are also maintained from the Masonic Home and School Funds. The Grand Chapter controls and manages the Home for Aged Masons and furnishes hospital care for about one-fourth of them. The Grand Lodge charitable revenue is derived from $1.25 dues with $10 raising fee, which goes to the Endowment Fund. A special building donation of $5 per capita was invited in 1922 and was paid. Among the Masonic institutions of Texas, including the Home and the School, Aged Masons Home, are the Templar Hospital, Home for Aged Members of the Eastern Star, Girl's Dormitory at the State University at Austin, the Dallas Children's Hospital the Children's Clinic, Welfare Center for Tubercular Soldiers at Kerrville, Student Loan Funds, Tuberculosis Sanitoria Commission and Masonic Employment Bureau.
Utah has a Charity Fund which is being added to each year by 10 per cent of the gross receipts of their Grand Lodge and further supplemented by the interest accruing on the capital already invested. A small portion of this fund is used for relief work, although the individual local Lodges, combined with the Board of Relief, handle most of the needy cases from Lodge and contributed funds.
In Vermont each individual Lodge cares for its own needy and deserving eases. The amount expended by each Lodge is reported with the annual returns. If it is found that any Lodge has expended more than $1 per member, the excess is repaid to the Lodge. If less than $1 has been used per member, nothing is repaid. This money is drawn from the General Fund of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, which is maintained by annual dues. They have on hand in a Permanent Charity Fund about $50,000, the income from which is to be available for benevolent purposes.
Virginia established a Masonic Orphanage near Richmond in 1890 on a tract of 65 acres. The plant has been valued at $250,000 and has cared for children at an operating expense of $335 for each guest. Charitable revenue is derived from $1 dues and a special tax of $1.
Washington opened a Masonic and Eastern Star Home at Puyallup in 1914, with property valued at $100,000 and it enjoys an Endowment from bequests of $150,000. It has cared for adult guests at a net operating expense of $413 for each guest. It has permanent Relief Funds at 325,000. $150,000 additional was appropriated in 1993 by the Grand Lodge for the purchase and equipment of a site for a new Home and the furnishings of same. A site was purchased in 1924 at a cost of $78,625 near Zenith and the balance of the appropriation is to be used for expenses in connection with this project.
West Virginia has built a new Home for Masons, their Widows and Orphans at Parkersburg. The investment is apparently $275,000 and an Endowment Fund of $200,000 has been accumulated. It has a Permanent Relief Fund of $28,000. Revenues are derived from 50 cents per capita taxes, $10 initiation fee and a $2 special building tax.
Wisconsin has taken over the Masonic Home at Dousman, formerly in charge of the Wisconsin Consistory. This is a splendid tract of 319 acres, with practical farm buildings, and has been used as a Home for a limited number of adults. The new Home represents an investment of more than S250,000. The generosity of Brother W. A. Van Brunt provides the Home with an Endowment Fund of S200,000. Ample resources for its future are assured. The Order of the Eastern Star has started a hospital irs connection with this Home. Grand Lodge dues for Home and Building Funds are $1.50 per capita of the membership.
Wyoming appointed a Board of Trustees for a Masonic Home Fund in 1913, starting with $10,000, which amount in 1924 had increased to $48,000. Two funds have been provided, one known as the Temporary Fund, the other as the Permanent Fund. From the latter nothing can be drawn without an action of the Grand Lodge. This is all placed at interest under the direction of the Board. All receipts such as interest, per capita tax, and returns from other sources pertaining to these Funds are placed in the Temporary Fund during the entire Masonic year. At the close of the year, all funds in excess of the appropriations plus 3500 retained in the Temporary Fund, are transferred to the Permanent Fund. Emergency cases requiring either temporary or continuous relief are handled from the Temporary Fund. Wherever possible the local Lodges are expected to provide for their needy members and where this is impracticable the Board of Trustees of the Masonic Home Fund appropriates the funds necessary. In many instances the local Lodges agree to provide a certain portion of the total amount, the Grand Lodge supplementing this with further contributions. Income for charitable purposes is derived from a 50 cents per capita tax and from the interest of funds on hand, from which returns additions are made to the Permanent Fund each year from suers set aside from the Temporary Fund.
CANADA, Alberta has established a Benevolent Fund of about $100,000, the interest on which, together with a per capita tax of 50 cents per member, amounts to approximately $11,000 and which amount is annually expended for benevolent purposes. Monthly grants are made to needy Brethren and those depending upon them. The capital Benevolent Fund is augmented each N ear by a 50 cents per capita tax on the Grand Lodge membership and also by special contributions from Lodges and individuals.
British Columbia has a Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund amounting to approximately $150,000, the revenue being devoted to the relief of aged and Infirm Freemasons, their widows and orphans, generally by means of monthly payments. This Fund is maintained by voluntary subscriptions by the members, by a fee of $4 for each initiation in the Lodges, by ten per cent annually of the gross revenue of the Grand Lodge, and by any surplus which remains in the General Fund of the Grand Lodge after the year's business is wound up.
Manitoba. The Grand Lodge of Manitoba has no Masonic Home or Hospital. It has a Benevolent Fund of $185,000, the interest of which is devoted solely to charity.
Nova Scotia had an experience with joint management, a Home for Aged Men being established at Halifax. A Committee, of which Brother C. E. Puttner was Chairman, in 1904 solicited the support of every Lodge in the Jurisdiction that provision might be made for needy Freemasons. At the Grand Lodge Communication of the year, $900 was placed in the hands of Trustees named by the Grand Master. But the plan did not work well and the Grand Lodge withdrew. Another attempt by Brother Puttner in i905 was more successful, the assembled representatives of Lodges planning a Masonic Fair for the Armouries, Halifax, from September 25 to October 3, 190G, the net receipts being $17,406. In 1908 the Grand Lodge bought and im proved the Freemasons Home at Windsor, adding twenty rooms, and another wing to the Infirmary is under way. The Hone is maintained by a per capita tax of $1 per member and $5 for each candidate initiated. They also have an Endowment Fund of about $43,000.
Prince Edward Island . The Grand Lodge of Prince Edward Island has the smallest Jurisdiction in the world and maintains its Benevolent Fund from a per capita tax of 25 cents. The interest only from this Fund is used in dispensing relief to their needy Brethren and their widows and children, which more than amply covers necessary expenditures for this purpose. After investigation of a reported case the method of handling is very simple the Grand Lodge merely issuing a cheek for the amount necessary to meet the needs of the case.
Ontario. Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario makes allowances for relief directly from the General Fund or others of its resources and also provides assistance jointly with Lodges through local boards. Amounts disbursed by Grand Lodge in 1924, for example, never reported as $10,885; grants made by the Lodges were $60,000 in addition to this sum. This amount was far below the sum contributed by the constituent Lodges as they have not been compelled to report their benevolent grants to Grand Lodge. There is a Benevolent Emergency Fund of S2,000. The above report mentions that two beneficiaries are cared for in Roman Catholic Institutions, at the expense of Grand Lodge.
Saskatchewan has a Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund with an invested capital that in 1925, for example, amounted to $182,000, the interest only being used for relief. The Government has a Home in the Province for the aged and infirm and the Grand Lodge Benevolent Fund has defrayed the charge of ana or the Brethren or their widows whom it has been necessary to send there.
MACAULAY'S THEORY OF MASONRY
Thomas Babington Macaulay wrote a distort of England which has been read more often than any other English history, and in the United States has enjoyed a double fame: first, as a text book or as required reading in high schools and colleges almost since its publication; second, as a masterpiece of literature which in conjunction with his Essays and his poems has been used in the English Departments of Colleges in every State of the Union, is in every public library, and once was required reading for each well-read man. His biographer says of him that he had read everything, knew more than he had read, and forgot nothing.
A carefully considered remark Macaulay once made on Freemasonry must for such reasons carry more weight than if it had been made by a man less thoroughly acquainted with England from the Norman Conquest to Queen Victoria. In a conversation with Harriet Beecher Stowe her notes show that he said: "I believe that all the cathedrals of Europe came into existence nearly contemporaneously, and were built by traveling companies of Masons under the direction of systematic organization."
Bro. David McGregor holds for the second quarter of this Century in the United States a record for the brilliancy of his coups in Masonic research, two or three of them of fundamental importance. He was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, September 7, 1864; was educated in Lisburn, Ireland; came to New York City in 1889; was for thirty years chief engineer in the Sprague Electric Company and helped set up electric street car systems in New Jersey. He was raised in Union Lodge, No. 11 (N. J.), Dec. 22, 1916; was Master in 1931; Grand Historian after 1928; Chairman of Committee on Foreign Correspondence from 1935; was 3 member of the National Masonic Research Society, and published reports of his first discoveries in The Builder.
Among his discoveries: That John Skene, who came to Jersey in 1682, was a Freemason, a member of the Aberdeen Lodge in Scotland. (See under ABERDEEN 1'e', LODGE OF; see also New York Masonic Outlook; September, 1926; page 13). That Earl Perth, Jersey Proprietor, was a Freemason; and that a number of members of Aberdeen Lodge came to Jersey at same time as Skene but did not remain. That a pre1730 Lodge met in New York in the Black Horse Tavern. That the New York Weekly Journal announced on Jan. 24, 1737 (N. S. 1738) that Mr. Provoost, about to move away, at a Lodge on January 19, 1737, had resigned as Master, and Cap. Matthew Norris, son of Admiral Norris, had been elected in his place. That on November 26, 1737, the New York Gazette published a letter to the effect that a "new and unusual sect of society at last has extended to these parts," etc. (See GouZ's History of Freemasonry; New York; 1936; Vol. 6; page 41.)
Most important was Bro. McGregor's discovery of the records of Col. Daniel Coxe. In 1730 this eminent citizen of New Jersey was by the Grand Lodge of England appointed to be Provincial Grand Master of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. But since no documents could be found to show that he had put his authority into effect, save an entry in the Minutes of the Grand Lodge of England to show that he visited it in 1731 as Prov. Grand Master, it was generally believed that he had been inactive, and had "been out of the country."
In old court and other civil records of New Jersey Bro. McGregor found abundant evidences of the presence and great activity of Coxe in America during the years in question. (See Early Freemasonry in Pennsylvaniaa magnificent bookby Henry S. Borneman; Grand Lodge of Pa; Philadelphia; 1931; page 56. See Chapters in Gould's History, above cited, Vol. VI, on New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. History of Freemasonry in New Jersey, by David McGregor; cloth; 164 pages; contains chapters on Pre-Grand Lodges in New Jersey; chapter on Daniel Coxe; Military Lodges; the Morristown Convention.)
MACKEY'S HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY
In his bibliography of the principal works of Dr. Albert G. Mackey on page 608 Bro. Robert I. Clegg inadvertently omitted the work which Mackey himself would have placed at the head of the list, his seven-volume History of Freemasonry; perhaps the Freudians would have said that this was an unconscious slip of memory occasioned by a sense of humbleness, because at the time (1921) Bro. Clegg had only recently edited and revised and in some chapters wholly re-written the famous History which had long been (and continues to be) the most widely read long history of the Craft ever published. Bro. Clegg based his work of revision primarily on the edition current in 1898. He received his reward by having the new work go out with the new title Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, by Robert Ingham Clegg.
When Mackey began a work the scope of which for a man of less learning would have meant a life-work, he had little to go on; Findel was not suited to American readers, and already was obsolete in part; Fort's Anturuittes dealt too much with antiquities; Oliver's "historical" works were better entitled romances; Gould's History had not yet been published; except for his own private library, his years of hard study and his erudition (of which there was much more than his readers may guess), and the assistance of a few friends like T. 9. Parvin, Mackey had to blaze a new road through the wilderness. He succeeded in blazing it; and while some hundreds of students and scholars have, as a body, blazed a better one since, no one man has ever approached the measure of his achievement.
His principal weakness (and granting that he did not possess data not discovered until afterwards) was a certain lack of reality, so that his book becomes at times too smooth, too static, with pages here and there like a drowsy sermon. This may be because he habitually thought of Freemasonry as an "institution" (one of his favorite words), a system, a collection of generalities and abstractions; and did not sufficiently see that there never had been such a thing as abstract Freemasonry, a thing separate and apart, but always that it had consisted of smen, actual, in flesh and blood, and that Freemasonry never had been anything more than a name for certain of the things those men were doing.
How does Mackey's History compare with Gould's Many Masons, and even many beginning students, can read one long History but they haven't the time to read two; which is the better for them? The question is therefore not an academic one; nor is it, at least on this page, a national one, as if one were to choose a national champion. As for this last point, a large fact stands out in full view, before which the point is lost: there is no such thing as English Freemasonry nor American Freemasonry; it is only Freemasonry, and belongs to no country; there is Freemasonry as it is in England and the same Freemasonry as it is in America.
The Grand Lodge of 1717, though it was erected in London, is as much the Mother Grand Lodge of Freemasonry in America as it is of Freemasonry in England; and until about 1800, and which means for two generations, Lodges and Provencal Grand Lodges here belonged as much to its Jurisdiction as any Lodge or Provincial Grand Lodge in England; when we American Masons study the history of that Grand Lodge, or of Freemasonry in Eighteenth Century England, or the history of Freemasonry prior to 1717, we are studying our own Masonic history, and it matters not if the settings of any of those chapters of it were in other lands or not.
St. Paul's remark about two stars differing in glory applies here. Mackey was far more erudite than Gould; had not only studied more, and read more, but had studied and read more widely. His knowledge was his own; overflowed; and he did not have to "get it up" for any subject. He had a sense for literature, and was master of a literary style, whereas Gould had neither.
Mackey had a grasp of the whole of Freemasonry, including the four modern Rites, and this unity was ever in his mind; there is a continuity from chapter to chapter; his history is a work of art in the true and original sense which has been lost to present-day literary cynicism. And since he knew that no one work (nor any thousand volumes) could contain each and every fact in one history, he had to select; and while selecting he knew from first-hand knowledge of rehem what his American readers wished most to learn.
Gould, and other things being equal, had the advantage of being at the headquarters of Masonic research; had access to Grand Lodge archives; could visit old Lodges; could use the British Museum, and a half hundred other collections of original sources; and had about him a circle of learned Masons to collaborate with him. His History has an effect of massiveness and power; is full of courage; and he had in him the new spirit of Masonic researchwas himself one of its originators, and felt no reverence for any book merely because it was old, nor for any belief merely because generations of Masons had held it.
His literary faults were a lack of a sense of proportionas when, though he had only one of his six volumes for a history of general Freemasonry properly so called, he used up fifty pages of it arguing over Sir Christopher Wren; and he was given to harsh, unjust judgments, as in his caricatures of Anderson and Preston. Also, he committed himself to the dogma that the Ancient had been a "schistnatic" Grand Lodge, and refused to surrender it when it was proved that they had not In the plan of his history he gave a disproportionate amount of space and attention to the Grand Lodge of 1717 as if it, and not hundreds of Lodges and tens of thousands of Masons, had made Speculative Masonry prosper around the world. AB against Mackey, he is preferred by students and researchers; and, as is natural, by Brethren in Great Britain.
As against both of them Begemann is of more massive technical erudition, but of narrower scope, and was guilty of ignoring Freemasonry in North America, where it has had as large a history as England had; and, if the four modern Rites be included, a larger one. Crawley stands apart, for his Cemenkria Hibernico is more than one half composed of documents, but he was, it is agreed, the most brilliant prose writer of any. There is a possibility that the writing of general, or "complete" histories is at an end and is to be replaced by books on single subjects or by special treatises, unless they may be written to serve as a framework or outline, or as a guide to special fields.
Robert Macoy was born in Ireland, October 4, 1816, but from the time he was four years old lived in New York City, where, at an early age, he apprenticed himself in the printing and publishing business, and continued in it for nearly forty years, first as printer and bookseller, and then as a Masonic publisher. During his generation he made a large place for himself in the American Craft, along with Mackey, McClenachan, Drummond, Morris, etc., with whom he was closely associated He won a success in four separate spheres of Masonic labors:
1. In the Order of the Eastern Star. Rob Morris had conceived the idea of it, had written rituals, had filled it with his inspiration, but was a failure at the work of organization. ". . . Upon his departure for the Holy Land, in 1868, Brother Morris transferred to Brother Macoy all the authority he had assumed and exercised in regard to the Order. Bro. Macoy immediately set about arranging the work more systematically.... Under his guiding hand the Supreme Grand Chapter. a selfeonstituted body, was organized in December, 1868. . ."
2. In the work of Grand Bodies of Masonry. He held the high office of Deputy Grand Master of New York, and was Grand Recorder of the Grant CommanderY, E. T.
3. AB author. He wrote an unknown number of articles for the Masonic press; wrote much in a number of Monitors and Manuals- and was author of The Worshipful Masters' Assistant which for half a century was to the office of Master what Mackey's Encyclopedia was to the whole of the Craft.
4. AB a publisher. He published (and oftentimes either edited or helped to write) a long list of Masonic books, among them The Master Workmen, 1849- The Masonic Manual 1852; The Book of the Lodge, 1855, a work of immense national influence which American Masonic historians have overlooked- Vocal Manual, 1853- Masonic Minstrel, 1857; Worshipful Master Assistant, 1885; Rise of Adoption, 1868, and in 1890- and the General History, Cyclopedia, and Dictionary of Freemasonry which is described under ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mackey's etc., elsewhere in this Supplement.
During the productive period of Bro. Macoy's published and writing the one demand everywhere was for Monitors and Hand-books, and Macoy was but one of a number who supplied them, from Webb to Mackey A detailed, exhaustive bibliography of Macoy by an expert would open up a path for historians into one of the most important fields of either American Masonic history or American Masonic Jurisprudence~ Grand Lodges (and other Grand Bodies) now prepare and publish their own Monitors. In the period, of almost three-quarters of a century, when it was left to private members to prepare and publish Monitors not a few of them (as was inevitable, and it is not to their discredit) insinuated into Craft practice more than one element of the Exoteric work which represented nobody's idea but their own, and in some instances was a mistaken idea. Certain of the small discrepancies, anomalies, inconsistencies which Grand Lodges find in the Monitorial sections of their Uniform Work, and sometimes in Lodge practice, could be traced back to a private Monitorialist.
Maimonides has been described "as the greatest Jewish figure since Old Testament times." Measured by any standard, and whether by a Jewish or a Gentile one, he was one of the towering men of the Middle Ages; in manhood, in learning, in power of mind, in his accomplishments for good, he was a greater man than Charlemagne, Thomas Aquinas, or Pope Gregory because he accomplished as much as any one of them did, but did it solely by means of his own greatness, and had no vast machinery of government, or church, or armies to make use of. The whole Jewish people of his time were not only widely separated but were bewildered, and often in despair; the final bitterness of the Diaspora had become almost too great for them to endure.
It was to them as well as for them that he wrote "their Bible next to the Bible," The Guide for the Perple2:ed. In it he advised them to discard ancient superstitions; to cease to attempt to carry out into minute detail regulations originally designed for Palestine; to cease to bewail and to lament a past which now was too far in the past to keep alive; and since they were excluded from the land, church, government, and army to turn to and to make their own the countries of the mind, to become scholars, artists, physicians (as he was himself), linguists, scientists, philosophers, because these terms of work were owned by neither pope nor king and knew of no difference between Jew and Gentile "is geometry," he asked, "Jew or Gentile? is scholarship? is medicine?"
There is no discoverable connection in history between Maimonides and Freemasonry at any point, yet, paradoxically, he is one of the subjects Masonic students must study. A school of Masonic writers, small but influential, has for half a century been trying to show that one of the roots or sources of Freemasonry was in the Kabbala In his great History of Jews, and speaking as a representative of a large school of Jewish historians, Graetz sets forth at length evidence to prove:
(1) that the Kabbala consisted of three
or four books written by Spanish Jews in the Thirteenth Century;
(2) that the rationalism (used in no sectarian sense) of Maimonides had won over the Jews of Spain;
(3) that the Kabbala was a reaction to it;
(4) that the occultism, mysticisms, and supposedly secret sciences in the Kabbalistic books concealed a superficial kind of thinking, not as profound as it may appear to be;
(5) that the claims made in them for the antiquity of their jargon and their doctrines were groundless, and in some instances were consciously false;
(6) and finally that there was no unity of thought among the Kabbalists themselves, and that if they had written their books in intelligible language, as they easily could have done, they had little to say. To do justice to himself a Masonic student must therefore study Maimonides and the Cabbala together, because the former is the key to the latter.
Maimonides was a Spanish Jew, of immense learning in many fields; he was born in 1135, died in 1204.
When in the Thirteenth Century Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa, afterwards declared to be the orthodox Roman Catholic theology, his purpose at the time was to make a reply for his Church as against the science and philosophy coming out of Spain, the one European country in which learning flourished; it is significant that he selected as his adversaries Avicenna and the Arab philosophers; he probably was afraid to attempt to encompass Maimonides because his own learning was too meager, too wholly local and theological, to cope with the encyclopedic learning of the great Jew. It was for this reason that while Thomas found the machinery of argument by which to incorporate the Arabic scholars' Greek learning (what of it he knew) into his Summa he left out of it the whole scope of Jewish learning, though his own Church had officially declared the Old Testament to be infallibly inspired. This failure, or lack, on the part of Thomas was not the least of the ultimate sources of much antisemitism centuries later.
MAKING AT SIGHT
With the publication of the Minutes and histories of early Eighteenth Century Lodges of England, Canada, and the United States the widely discussed question of "making a Mason at Sight" has been set in a new frame-work of facts, and given a new meaning (See page 941.)
More data will be discovered but in the light of present knowledge it appears that while the phrase is apparently of American origin, and perhaps came first into use in Pennsylvania, the conferring of the Three Degrees in a condensed form on a Candidate in one evening (consisting, therefore, of little more than the OB's and the Modes of Recognition) was not only permitted among early English Lodges, but was in universal practice among them, and they considered it a Lodge prerogative. It continued in some American Lodges as late as 1860. A meeting for "making at sight" was called an "Emergency Meeting" (or Communication); during it a Candidate was Entered, Passed, Raised, and elected to membership in about two hound of time. Records of these Emergency Meetings stud the Minutes of at least 200 Eighteenth Century English and American Lodges.
It has been an accepted theory that Making at Sight was a prerogative seized or created by Grand Masters in order to enlarge the powers of their office; it is now plain that the-opposite-occurred; that so many Lodges took to "Emergent Makings" that Grand Masters were forced to reserve the right of such makings to their own office in order to put a stop to what had become an evil. These facts are fraternally called to the attention of those British Brethren who have criticized and even satirized "Making at Sight" as an "Americanism"; except that it is now (fortunately) reserved to Grand Masters it is a Briticism, and one in practice since the first half of the Eighteenth Century among nearly all English Lodges. Moreover, English Masons continue even now a constituted custom of "making at sight" in principle though it refers to Lodges rather than to Masons; for it is considered that to "make" a new Lodge is the Grand Master's prerogative. In the beginning Grand Masters first consented to the forming of a new Lodge and then appeared in person to constitute it, or else sent a personal deputy; what were called Warrants were not legal documents but personal communications which gave Grand Master's consent.
In the United States a Grand Master can issue a temporary Dispensation to form a Lodge, in order that for a period the Lodge can work on probation; a Charter can be issued only by a Grand Lodge at its Regular Annual Communication. In constitutional principle the making of Lodges by the Grand Master's personal act could be identical with making a Mason "at sight" by his own personal act. If English Brethren reply that we are inconsistent in recognizing the Grand Master's prerogative to make Masons while refusing him the prerogatives to make Lodges, many American authorities on jurisprudence will agree with them. Even so, there is something to be said in favor of Making at Sight, regardless of how inconsistent it may be, be cause once in a long while a Petitioner finds himself in circumstances where he must receive in one night the Degrees he has been elected to, or can receive none of them.
Those who have sought in times immemorial for some origin or authorization for the Grand Master's prerogative to Make at Sight need never have looked BO far afield, because it was recognized as legal by the Ancient Grand Lodge of 1751, from which so much of our Work and 80 many of our practices are derived. In the Records of that Grand Lodge, under date of April 16, 1777, a Minute shows that Dermott discussed the subject, admitted the Grand Mashr's right, but expressed it as his opinion that a Grand Masher ought not to Make at Sight except when he can make a sufficient number to form a Lodge. (The Minute is quoted in full in Gould's History of Freemasonry; Scribner's; 1936; page 176.)
A paragraph may be quoted as one specimen from many others in Lodge histories to show that for years after the date of the Dermott Minute the Lodge custom continued; it is from Some Memorials of the Globe Lodge, No. if; by Henry Sadler; London; Spencer & Company; 1904; page 45: "The 3rd of May, 1810, was the last occasion in this Lodge when the three degrees were conferred on candidates on the same evening, but it was only in case of emergency that the three degrees were given ...."
MALTA, KNIGHTS OF
The history of the Knights of Malta (nee Knights of Hospital, Knights of St. John, etc.) was until recent years written by itself, that is, from its own records and reports of itself; or else by its enemies, who have not always been scrupulous; it is now possible to re-write its whole history in terms of modern, impartial scholarship. One of the results of that scholarship has been to break the one history of this Order into four or five almost separate histories, because the Order transformed, or at least transmogrified itself that many times.
As regards Freemasonry it may be said in general that the Knights were antipathetic to it, or to any such teachings or truths as Masons held at any period. In particular, the Order was twice used in attempts to destroy Freemasonry, and it therefore has at one time or another belonged to that long chapter of the history of the Fraternity which is called Anti Masonry.
It had become an open and confessed military arm of the Vatican before the Popes issued their first Bull against Freemasonry in 1738, and it was ordered to oppose Freemasonry wherever it could. In about 1800 it was instrumental in thriving Freemasonry out of Russia. When Metternich after 1815 and the Congress of Vienna became the dictator of Europe he made the complete elimination of the Fraternity one of his open and principal aims; and to a large extent he succeeded for some years, and may be described as the most powerful Anti-Mason of the Nineteenth Century.
The Knights of Malta were one of the agencies employed by him. (See page 539.) (Complete, detailed, fair, modern histories of the Order are On the Trail of the Eight-Pointed Cross 1G. P. Putman's; View York; 1940]; and Malta of the Knights, by E. W. Schermerhorn; Houghton, Mifflin; New York 1929; full bibliographies in both. For a more condensed account see House of the Temple; Study of Malta and its Knights in the French Revolution, by Frederick W. Ryan; Burns Oates and Washburn; London; 1930; bibliographies. Fifty Years in the Malts Order, by R. E. A. Land; two volumes; Toronto; Can.; 1928; contains also a detailed account of the Masonic Knights of Malta.)
After the first dissolution of the Order in Malta, an attempt was made to revive it in France to help the Greeks in their war with the Turks, after the latter had shocked Europe by a massacre of Christians on the Island of Scio; and they appealed to such Knights as were in England to assist them.
In consequence, the English branch of the Order was re established -it and in this action English members were permitted to be members of the Anglican Church. The English Knights based their rights on a Charter which had been granted by Queen Mary, but on grounds that were legally insecure. To remove this uncertainty Queen Victoria granted a new Charter in 1888. After this reincorporation, "the method of government of the Order was framed, as far as possible, on the precedents of the old Order.... The Sovereign of the Realm is the Sovereign Head and Patron, and no admission can be made to the Order except with his Majesty's sanction." From 1910 until his death the Duke of Connaught (Grand Master, the United Grand Lodge of England at the time) was Grand Prior.
The Order organized and maintained the St. John Ambulance Association and St. John Ambulance Brigade, with a highly efficient and very large membership of members expertly trained in First Aid. "In June, 1912, as a special mark of their appreciation of the work of the Brigade, the King and Queen inspected in Windsor Great Park, 11,000 men and 3,000 Nursing Sisters, including many representatives from Overseas." It furnished over 17,000 Hospital Orderlies in World War I; maintains a hospital; carries on relief work abroad; and carried on very extensive relief work in World War II.
Notes. The above is in correction of one or two statements made in last paragraph on page 541. The indispensable reference work on the modern Order is The Order of the Hospital of St. John and its Grand Priory of England, by H. W. Fincham; W. H. ,& L. Collingridge; 148 Oldersgate St., E. C., London; 1915. Beginning on page 78 it gives a list of the Grand Priors of England from Walter, 1143, to William Weston, who was Prior when Henry VIII dissolved the Order in 1540, and Thomas Tresham who held office of the revived Priory under Queen Mary in 1557; and for the period when English Priors were stationed in Malta under Richard Shelley, in 1566, to Girolamo Layarelli in 1806; and from Sir Robert Peat, first Prior after revival of Order in England, in 1831, to the Duke of Connaught, in 1910.
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