WE do not agree with Sir Harry Johnston ("The Uganda Protectorate") in his statement that "the Negro race certainly originated in Southern Asia, possibly in India, not far from the very centre where man himself emerged in some form similar to the Pithecanthropos Erectus, from a branch of the anthropoid apes." Our belief, from the anatomical and other studies of the various races, is that the original home of man was in the Nile valley and its sources, and not Southern Asia, the original inhabitants of which came from here, it being the centre of exodus for the world. Here we still find the four different types of Lemur, from one branch of which, no doubt, man descendedan anthropoid ape-which may still exist in the Congo forest, and from this the prognathous type of pygmy, and from this pygmy "the Masaba negroes, ape-like men; strongly projecting superciliary arches, low brows, flat noses, bulging nostrils, long upper lips, receding chins, broad in zygomatic measurement, cranial development very poor; stumpy individuals with much prognathism. The hands and arms long, the feet large and clumsy, the knees turn in, and the shins are much bowed." It has been said that neither these nor the Pygmies circumcise, nor do they decorate the body with any Pattern or scars or weals.(1) They are the most primitive and fundamental negro race, an aboriginal race, in fact, that has not as yet evolved any of those Totemic ceremonies that we find in the higher developed negro, which emanated, so to speak, by evolution from these. These spread N., E., S., and W. throughout the world, and we still have remnants left. The Viddas of Ceylonthe race that the Ainu drove out and destroyed in Japan-the earliest race in Mexico, and after them, developed by evolution, the types of "hairy men." The Nilotic negroes, who possess "Totemic Ceremonies" and have the remains of the Stellar Mythos, are a higher type of negroes than the Masaba, and by
(1 This is questionable. Our researches go to prove the contrary.) 
 evolution were developed from them. From the earlier Nilotic negroes we can trace the Masai, a fine race of men, developed from the early Nilotic source, and we can see how much further these have progressed towards civilisation. They have in their texts the same Cosmic myths, moral and religious tales, and religious notions and traditions which we find in the old Egyptian papyri of the Stellar Mythos. Their physical and mental characteristics, their social and military institutions, show what progress they have made to reach a higher state. On many of the ancient tombs and mural sculptures the faces and forms of the oldest Egyptians that we find are undoubtedly similar to these Masai, who are now fast dying out. It is a question in our mind if some of these did not emigrate south and form the nucleus of the great Zulu tribes.
The Ainus, Australian and New Guinea aborigines descended from the Nilotic negroes, have still many of the forms, rites, and ceremonies of the early Totemic age. It is only necessary to place the Australian aborigines and the Nilotic negroes together and then examine them anatomically to establish their identity, to say nothing of the deductions to be drawn from the similar features in all their present rites and ceremonies.
The cranial capacity of the Mesaba and Pygmies is very low wherever we find their remains, about 960 c.c., and the sutures close early, thus preventing the further development of the brain, and retarding learning. As a result, progressive evolution would be slow. To understand evolution fully, one must go back to these primitive people of small stature and great muscular development: the first little earth-men or red man-i.e. Paleolithic man. As these spread farther north, the cold northern climate would cause their muscular tissue to develop greater strength, and they would become hardier than those of hot climates. The whole world was probably peopled by these "negroids" first, certainly long before the last glacial period. As the cold became too intense to live in the northern latitudes, they were driven back south again. Some, no doubt, went farther south than others. The cold would induce them to live in caves and underground places, and they had to think how they could keep warm and procure food, how to fasten skins together to wear and enable them to retain their natural warmth, and a commencement of mechanical devices to suit, and thus they would have to use their brains more  and more, which would gradually tend to increase therein in size and cell development. As soon as the extreme cold had passed away they would spread northwards again, and would be followed by those who had developed both in stature and brain-power in Egypt and the Nile valleys, as we find that these were a taller, more energetic, and more warlike people-these were of the Neolithic age and brought the Stellar Mythos with them. They drove out and exterminated the first primitive people, as we find the Ainu and Australians did in Japan and Australia, and as the Neolithic did the Paleolithic here in these islands and Europe generally. This probably took a very long time, as all would not be at first exterminated. Some would, no doubt, mingle with the conquerors, but in many cases they would naturally die out. Marriages and inter-marriages must be taken into consideration in the further developments and evolution, as well as environment.
As far as the evidence that has been left us shows, the Paleolithic man lived simply by hunting and fishing. How long these little people existed before the Neolithic age it is impossible to say, probably 100,000 years, and so far there is no evidence of their having any Mythos.
Zaboyouski attributed to Sergi a statement that the Egyptians are diffused through Asia Minor, Southern Russia and elsewhere, which Sergi does not claim to have stated; nevertheless it is quite true. Sergi, however, does not go back far enough for the Exodus direct. Of these the first was Paleolithic man, remains of whom have been found sparsely, the second was Early Neolithic. Their skeletons, burial places, etc., are many. The ethnographic observations of Herodotus and other classic writers are much too late to be taken into serious consideration when proving the origin of the human race, although interesting as to the facts they observed as regards the customs of the people they visited. Professor Sergi agrees and proves by anthropology, "that the origin and migration of the African racial element took place in primitive times from the South towards the North." The types of Cro-Magnon and Homme-Mort, and others in French and Belgian localities, as well as the oldest remains in these Islands, bear witness to the presence of an African stock in the same region in which we find the dolmens and other megalithic monuments erroneously attributed to the Celts. All these were widely extended over the world and had the  same primitive funeral customs, shaped skulls, long forearms, etc., until they were modified by men and stronger influences, and only in Egypt can we find the centre from which these originated and migrated. The remains found at Harland Bay, Cornwall and Naqada are typical (see later). The "Celts" were those who came after and modified their funeral customs by introducing cremation.
One reason why Blonds are found in North Africa may be determined from the retrograde movement of the northern people through being driven back again during the Glacial Period; that only a small percentage of Blonds are found in North Africa would prove that only a few "crossed back again" during this intensely cold epoch when life could not exist farther north than about the centre of France. The skulls and physical types of these in North Africa have so many characters similar to the Finns (a northern people) that it amounts to positive proof when joined with others brought forward in this work.
Various authors have given from 70,000 to 200,000 years for the Neolithic age. When their culture was greatly advanced, they cultivated the soil, bred animals, understood the art of spinning, weaving, of pottery making, also working in copper, tin and gold, and had the knowledge of the Stellar Mythos. In some parts of Europe, at least, the gap between the Paleolithic and Neolithic is so abrupt and striking that it is only by assuming an entire or nearly entire disappearance of the former, and a subsequent re-peopling by the latter, who came up from Egypt and the Nile valleys, that one can understand the past, because, while primitive man was still struggling for existence with the mammoth and other animals, a relatively advanced degree of culture had already been developed in the Nile valleys; and this exodus spread all over the world. In tracing the evolution of man, there is one particular point of considerable importance we have not been able to find any author dilating upon, and this is, the development and evolution of the Hair from the short, "pepper-corn" character, which we find in the Pygmies first, and then on to the people who have long straight hair. We have given photos here of the Pygmies, Tasmanians and Bushmen, who have characteristic "pepper-corn" hair; but as one fact to add and prove with others in the development of the hair of the human race, it must and ought to be taken into account.
FIG. 59.-Man of the Tjingilli tribe, showing
the curled nature of the hair. Full face.
Photograph from "Native Tribes of Northern Australia," by Spencer and Gillera, published by Macmillan & Co., to whom we return thanks for the permission to reproduce it. Shows the curled nature of the hair, wide-spreading ahae of nose and depressed root of nose. Lips showing half development between pygmy and negro, also well marked cicatrices on lower figure.
 In the Pygmies we have the first form of hair of primitive man, then, as evolution took place, we find certain modifications
coming to pass in the character of the hair along with other
(1 Mr Tovey Cozens, who lived some time
amongst these people as well as the
Pygmies, stated that the Bushmen told him that their ancestors were connected with the Pygmies. It will be observed that the lips are not those of the negro type, but have the same characteristic as the Pygmies. The root of the nose is very much depressed and flattened, and the tips and aloe are broad, flattened and greatly expanded. The hair is the same peculiar "pepper-corn" character.)
 tanatomical conditions; and those tribes nearest allied to the Pygmies have the nearest approach to the same characters. In the Bushmen we have it almost identical, and from photographs ill extant of the exterminated Tasmanians, it is very characteristic, with other anatomical conditions. It is only necessary to look and compare the photos here produced. As can be seen from these photos, the anatomical condition of the nose, lips, shape of the head, etc., are the same, and also the hair, as shown when it is short. In one photograph of the Tasmanian we see that the hair has been allowed to "grow long," and gives a very peculiar appearance. From this to the hair of the various other tribes, further removed by higher development of their anatomical features-Zulus, Negroes, etc., there is, and can be traced a gradual loss of the pepper-corn to the "curly" hair of the negro and other tribes. In the photographs of the Australians, we see that there is much of the "curly hair" still amongst sonic of these people, which helps to prove their origin; others have it much straighter, and some have lost the curly nature. Much might be said on this subject, which is one of those we have studied, but what we have mentioned we consider sufficient for this work. To all those who are interested in this point we feel sure, if they will study the Ethnol, they will find in each race peculiarities-the hair, and its development, along with other anatomical developments-which must be taken into consideration, and that all the primary or Paleolithic people who went out from the Nile valleys, had this "pepper-corn" hair, remnants of which may be found all over the world, altered by time, evolution and environment to the straight.
Some further information may be gained, by those who wish to ascertain the truth, by studying the physical characters offered by the Egyptian monuments-the types represented under the name of Tamahu. The oldest has the characteristic long, "peppercorn" hair as we see in the Tasmanians, lips are thin and not negro's, little beard, etc., with the Horus lock and two feathers on his head. In the next type we find the lips thick, like the negro's, and hair much longer and wavy or curly. For further information on this point Professor Sergi's "The Mediterranean Race" is valuable.
 Since writing the foregoing, by kind permission of the Manager of the London Hippodrome, Mr Fred Trussell, and Colonel Harrison, who brought them over from the forests of Ituri, in the Congo Free State, we have been able to examine the Pygmies here in London.
These Pygmies are primitive men-the little earth men. They are not negroes but are negroid, and many of their ana
tomical features show the near relationship they bear to the Pithecanthropos Erectus. The height of these Pygmies ranges from 1.378 metres, the tallest, to 1.158, the shortest; and they weigh from 7 stone, the heaviest, to 3 stone 7 pounds, the lightest. The average height of thirty-eight Akka Pygmies, from the Monbuttu country, is given as 1.378 metres by Deniker, and thirty Akkas, measured by Emin Pasha, gave an average height of 1.36 metres. It has been stated that these Pygmies marry at about eight years
 old and do not live much over forty years, but we do not think there is sufficient data to prove the ages of these little people, one way or the other. The people themselves have no idea whatever of their age, and the statements made concerning them are obviously mere guesswork. Mr. Geil, when he asked the oldest Pygmy he saw how old he was, received the answer "many moons," and the Pygmy opened and clasped his fingers several times, so that he thought him to be about fifty years old. A very able article has been written on these Pygmies by Dr G. E. Smith, in The Lancet, 12th August 1905, to whom we are indebted for the reproduction of these photographs.
Their COLOUR is chocolate-brown-rather of a reddish tint.
The RITE OF CIRCUMCISION appears not to have been definitely settled by those who have seen most Pygmies-some state that they do not circumcise, others (Sir Harry Johnston, Uganda Protectorate) state that the males of all the Congo Pygmies seen by them were circumcised. In the case of these in London, only the chief was, and therefore it would be an important question to know if all the chiefs only are, or only males when they have become fully developed men.
Their HAIR is peculiar, and is the same in the male and female as regards length, colour and character. Colonel Harrison states "Hairdressing is a great art among them; nearly as many patterns are cut on the head as there are grades of colour." The bristles of the red pig form their favourite headdress and earrings; these they twist up into small bunches and tie in tufts to the hair. It is closely rolled, and has the characteristic discrete pepper-corn balls, and of a peculiar dull, lustreless appearance, not what one would call black, but of an indefinite greenish-grey tint. Mr Cozens stated to the author that he has seen them shave "all over" with pieces of glass, and they told him it was done to protect them from the "Matakania."
They are BROAD-CHESTED, SHORT-NECKED, STRONG-LOOKING,
MUSCULAR, AND WELL-MADE. The arms gave one the impression that they were much longer than the European. Dr Smith's accurate measurements give the "forearm" as being on the average 1 per cent. longer, but the upper arm and legs about the same as in Europeans. We were sorry we could not obtain a "raidograph" of the bones of the forearm, to see if there was a greater distance between their bones than the average European. We noticed
 several "scars" on the upper arms, on the left side, but could not get any definite answer as to their meaning. The general contour of the head is well depicted on the plates here produced. We give Dr Smith's measurements, as we had not a suitable opportunity-to measure them ourselves, as stated in our article, "A Study of the Pygmies," in The Standard, 7th July 1905. Dr Smith's able article in The Lancet, 12th August 1905, is very accurate and important as regards measurements: "All the heads are ovoid in norma verticalis, and the length-breadth indices are respectively 76.5, Mongungu; 77.7, Bohani; 78, Manumitting; 78.7, Amooriapee; and 79.1 both in Matuaha and Kuarhe. The heights of four of the crania are almost identical - 135, 137, 139 and 139, the two old people having much the loftier heads, the woman Amooriape's cranial height being 144 millimetres (head length, 174), and the man Bohani's 155 millimetres (head length, 184). The horizontal circumference of the heads are 514, 544, 533, 518, 514 and 505 millimetres, respectively. As a measure of their prognathism, the indices expressive of the proportionate length of the nasal and prosthionic radii are 111, 104, 115, 110.5, 107 and 108. Bohani s the least progenathous and Mafutiminga the most."
NOSE -The root of the nose is exceptionally flattened and very broad from 40 to 49.5 millimetres. The characteristic Pygmy type of nose is well seen in the illustrations; the tip is broad and flattened and the ale greatly expanded, although they vary a little in some particulars.
EYEBROWS.-Well formed and different from the negro.
TEETH.-Colonel Harrison states:- "They are blessed with wonderful teeth, being able to crunch up bones with ease-a pastime they are particularly fond of. We noticed that their teeth were large, well formed, and of the animal type."
Mr Cozens states that he has seen some of the Pygmies "file their teeth."
Lips.-Are quite characteristic. They have not the massive, fleshy, everted lips of the negro. The Pygmy has long, rather narrow lips; the upper has a noteworthy sub-nasal projection, and when drinking or speaking, the combination of the flattened nose and the lips gives a strikingly Simian appearance. The lips of one woman had been perforated in three places. (See photograph of Kuarhe.)
 EARS.-The ears are small; the lobules not well developed, and in Matuha the pinna is crudely formed. Some of the ears are pierced, but not in all. The chin is small in all, and the mandible is narrow and pointed. Bohani alone has a beard; it consists of a small stubbly growth of short close-rolled hair on the chin and upper lip, and the hair is the same on the chest and abdomen. The pubic and auxiliary hair in all the others is the same, and the same in the women. They shave part of the head at times, as may be seen in the photos, sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, and others again only to leave a fringe. This, probably, is connected with some sacred ceremony unknown to us at the present with our limited knowledge of their habits.
ABDOMEN.-In all Pygmies there is an extraordinary prominence of the abdomen, which is not the result of over-feeding, but is owing to the coecum being placed high up in the lumbar region, from it the colon is bent downwards to the right, and the iliac fossa, thus becoming largely distended, pursues a sigmoid course across the abdomen, and this prominence is not owing to the liver being enlarged, as My Geil states in his book.
STEATOPYGIA.-In some of the younger women and in Kuarhe there is a distinct Steatopygous condition.
BRAIN.-The average weight of the brain in a healthy Pygmy is about goo grammes.
Music.-Their music is similar to the Soudanese negroes. Mr Geil, who visited them, says:- "They are fond of dancing, very merry, and laughing and singing, continually at jokes. Their voice is really very melodious." Lieut.-Colonel Harrison says "that he has seen natives dance in all parts of the world, but nothing to surpass the agility of these little people, who are taught to dance almost before they can run." He states "that it is wonderful to watch seventy or eighty men, women, and children circling in and out, round and round, always keeping the tom-toms in their centre, every foot along the whole line moving together, and every toss of the head and every twist of the body being executed with military precision." Col. Harrison adds: "How interesting it would be to follow them, in their own dialect, through all the plays and scenes their dances depict!!! There are funeral and wedding dances, the hunting and wrestling dance (a curious dance, in which they try to throw each other by the interlocking of legs)." - We have seen this and drawn attention to the same.-Then they have  the fetish dance, war dance, monkey dance, executed almost in a sitting position, and many more. Dancing seems to be their only source of pleasure, and many an hour is passed in its indulgence.
LANGUAGE. Their language is not a language of "clicks" only, as we have seen stated; many of the sounds are quite soft, and mostly labial and lingual, and not so many lingual-dental; neither do we agree with what we have seen stated by Sir Harry Johnston, viz.: (l)
"That they have no language of their own, but only spoke the words they had learned from surrounding tribes." We do not say that the Pygmies have not acquired some words from surrounding tribes that they have been in contact with, but we have not the slightest doubt that they possess a monosyllabic language of their own, and one of the principal proofs lies in the fact that they speak words which have the same sound as the ancient Hieroglyphics of Egypt, as we pronounce them, and our contention is that these are the "originals." There may be few words to express all their meanings, but we must call this "the first and oldest language of primitive man," and that the tribes who use the same and the old Egyptian, which is the same, must be original Pygmy words. No doubt many more words have been coined by surrounding tribes, as we ever find a progressive people coining words; and so words and language grew, as the mode of articulation for different sounds became easier with the practice of those they had. There cannot be any real argument that these Pygmies had learned these words from the old Egyptian Hieroglyphics and surrounding tribes, because it would involve the acceptance that long ago some ancient Egyptians, in a much higher state of civilisation, had been driven back, lost all the records of the time, and degenerated to the Pygmy, which, taking their anatomical condition into consideration alone, would be impossible; but the more we study
(1 We made this statement from seeing it in a daily paper, but Sir Harry Johnston has since in a letter in The Lancet, in answer to one we wrote, stated that he does not hold this dogmatic view. Mr R. Tovey Cozens, who lived amongst the Pygmies for many months, informed the writer that he was quite sure the Pygmies had a language of their own; at the same time, they could speak the language of the negroes surrounding them. They had burial grounds, which, however, they took great pains to keep secret; they only buried their dead here at night, and it was by following, unknown to them, that he discovered this. They bury their dead in the thrice-bent position, laid on the side. At the s-me time he agrees with Mr Geil in that they do not always bury their dead in their "burial grounds," but sometimes as Mr Geil has stated, but he never saw any "iron bracelets"- put on the graves. He is of opinion that the Pygmies, as a rule, do not circumcise.)
 the facts that are already brought
to light, the greater proof is there that the Pygmy is the oldest
and first man, and with him language originated, and the first
sacred ceremonies, as we shall prove later. We have learned some
of the Pygmy words and give them here with the old Hieroglyphics,
and only regret that we have been unable to obtain all their words.
They are written phonetically, as Mr F. Trussell (to whom we are
indebted for the same) states that he has used the French etymology,
as he could not get the sounds in English. Mr Geil states that
they have a sign language of their own, which all understand.
This is very important, as all negroes have not, although the
Aboriginal Australians have. It is also stated that they stick
a small stem of fern through their noses sometimes.
It is important to note these points with regard to the Pygmies:
1. They have a Sign Language of their own. This we proved, as we could make them understand many signs we knew and understand their signs to us.
2. They build Spirit Houses.
3. They sometimes use the "Nose Stick." Mr Cozens states that this is sometimes a bone.
4. They have Sacred Dances.
5. They mark the Forehead and Cheeks with Red Paint and sometimes smear blood on.
6. They believe in Spirit Ancestors and Re-incarnation.
7. They have always been in the forest from all times.
8. That when they die their Spirit enters a Great Serpent, which comes and visits the camp for a little time and then goes away; never does them any harm, and they never molest it.
9. Their Hair, Lips, and Anatomical Conditions generally-as "primitive man," not developed by evolution to the extent of the negro.
10. Their Method of Existence-by living by the Bow and Arrow and Spear, etc., and not cultivating the ground or domesticating animals as Neolithic man.
11. Nomad, but Paleolithic and not Neolithic.
12. Not intermarrying with any tribes, but amongst themselves - this we also find is the custom of the oldest tribes of Mexico, the Seri; and the smallness of stature. They  have no common burial-place for the dead, but each one is buried in earth where the camp is, and then the camp moves on. This last, however, Mr Tovey Cozens refutes by his observation.
They can count up to zoo, have a particular sign for 50, also for zoo. They reckon time by "Lunar" time-they have no "days," but have "seasons" and "moons." Most, if not all, have only one wife, and rarely more than two or three children. They have the most wonderful knowledge of poisons and  counter-poisons, and the negroes around come to them if poisoned by bites of snakes or other reptiles. They bury their dead the same day they die with the bark cloth worn in life, cover it with green leaves and earth, and put on the grave a pair of iron bracelets (?). The corpse is buried close to or under the central fire in the encampment They mourn for a few days. They sing and weep for three days, but do not dance, and then leave and build a newcamp. They are nomadic, and their average stay in one place is about three months. They build their camps in the form of an ellipse and their huts in the form of a half-moon, all facing inwards, with a large central fire, and small fires in front of each hut. Mr Geil states "that the Pygmies live in little huts, to the boughs of which large leaves are attached with fibre. Inside the leafy huts are little couches of the same large symmetrical leaves, laced together, making 'elfin beds fit for a fairy goddess.' Unlike so many native dwellings, the Pygmy hut is clean, and the Pygmy is clean also in person, and is a good hunter." Lieut.-Col. J. J. Harrison, who penetrated into the great Ituri forest, and made friends with the Pygmies and brought a number of them here to England with him (see photographs) says "that the whole Pygmy nation seems to be split up into small tribes of say sixty or seventy, each obeying its own chief. They live an entirely wandering life like our gipsies. Their huts, made of branches and leaves, measure about 7 feet in diameter and 4 feet high; they are hidden away in almost inaccessible places, so that no one could ever approach them unawares. They never steal from each other, but rob the negroes and Belgians with impunity." Pygmies say that they never intermarry with the negroes or others, only with themselves-i.e. with other Pygmies.(1) My W. E. Geil says that he asked the Chief of the Pygmies about the spirits of the Pygmies in the future, and all the answer he could obtain was: "We do not know about spirits. When we bury a man, the body of that man will enter a great serpent, and the serpent will come and see us. It will come near to us and coil up, but it will not bite us." I asked a second time about this, and the Chief persisted in saying "that the serpent would come and see them, and would not bite them, and they would
(1 From information that we have received it is probable that some Pygmy women have been given or sold to some of the negroes in their near vicinity, and MY Tovey Cozens has informed us that their practice in this respect to strangers who come amongst them is the same as with the Australians and others.)
 do it no harm. That is all, it will go away afterwards." Mr Geil states that Pygmies believe in a good spirit and a bad one, and some in the finger of fate; "that they have a weird and mysterious air, which he attributes to their religious belief." He mentions the name of one tribe of the Pygmies as "Ti Kiti-Ki," which would mean in ancient Egyptian, "men of the double cavern." It is important to note that the Egyptians later used to think and believe that the Sun God- "Osiris in mummified form" -or the flesh of Ra was reborn into the life of a new day wily after he had been- drawn through the body of a serpent, and came out in the Double Cave on an Island in a Lake in spiritual form (see later). Thus we see that the Pygmies' idea of the spirit first inhabiting the body of a large serpent was brought on and made use of in their Solar mythos-it was a reincarnation of the spirit, and they probably adopted the serpent as a type because they noticed that it cast its skin once a year, and so came forth as a "new serpent," and thus they associated it with the regeneration of the spirit. We feel that to obtain the truth of all the past origins of mythology and all that followed, some capable person should go and dwell amongst these Pygmies, gain their confidence, and study them as Spencer and Gillen did the Australians; then many points would be undoubtedly cleared up, and the "book of the past" could be read and would be open to those who studied and understood. How much of the "original past" of the Pygmies remains at the present day or how much is "lost" is an open question, even when we gain all the knowledge that is possible now, because the ages and ages these little people have lived in their great forest would naturally tend to efface or alter some of their ideas and customs, even if only in a modified form at first, as we see in the Australians. We cannot agree, therefore, with Dr Wallis Budge in his statement in The Gods of the Egyptians, vol. I. P. 27: "There is no reason whatsoever for doubting that in Neolithic times the primitive Egyptians worshipped animals as animals and as nothing more: the belief that animals were the abode of spirits or deities grew up in their minds later, and it was this which induced them to mummify the dead bodies of birds and beasts and fishes, etc., in which they thought deities to have been incarnate." Now the Pygmies, from whence all sprang, do not worship animals, but they believe that the spirit inhabits the serpent for a time after  death-reincarnation-but they do not worship it. They believe in a great spirit, as is seen and expressed in their care for one who is "defective." It simply represents a type, as in like manner the Apis Bull and the Ram of Mendes were representative types of the attributes o f the One Great God, and they were only looked upon as this; not worshipped as beasts and animals.
One of the most interesting and important points we found was that when we drew the oldest Hieroglyphic sign for Amsu they recognised it. In the Book of the Dead, chap. clxiv., we find that Mut A the Great Mother of us all (a form of Isis), is associated with two Pygmies, each of whom has two faces, one of a hawk and one of a man, both have an arm lifted to support the symbol of the god Amsu, and wears upon his head a disk and plumes of the same form as we find "Bes" and others, associated with Central Africa, wore, according to Dr Budge, but which we associate with those of the "Lakes of the origin of the Nile and Nile valleys." The difference is really one of not much importance-it is simply a question of one or two degrees of latitude. All authorities are agreed that they are able to recognise photographs and pictures, and will themselves readily draw them, if given a pencil and piece of paper, and also draw figures to express what they have no words for. When we drew this sign and asked the chief if he knew what it was, he smiled and pointed to Matuha and Mafutiminga and told them to tell us what it was. They answered, " That is him," pointing to their chief, mentioning his name. That they recognise this sign, the most ancient sign we have for Amsu-or Horns 1. risen-is very important to Egyptologists, because it was the first sign used by primitive man to represent the chief-a great oneand it was the sign of the Chief of the Nomes. It is found depicted on the oldest Australian Boomerangs and on the ivory tablets found in the tomb of Naqada. A full description and explanation of it is given later on.
Sacred Ceremonies.-It has been stated that they have no religious ideas at all, but this is evidently a mistake, as, before they "dance," they take off their ordinary head-dress (La-gouma) of light feathers, or that which they have to represent the same, and put on the representation of the "Horns Lock," also a  Leopard's skin, with the tail hanging down behind, and they tell you that this is part of their sacred ceremonies. This dance, which is "part of their sacred ceremonies," consists of a series of more or less zigzag movements in more or less of a large circle; the chief in front, and one following close behind imitating all his steps and actions. Suddenly the chief stops, faces round and wrestles with the other with his feet and legs. The one behind, having disengaged himself, the chief resumes his dance around in a large circle with the fantastic movements. Again he faces around as before, still followed closely by the other; again he stops and repeats the former action. This occurs three times, and on the third occasion, he, the chief, throws the other, and the dancing ceremony is ended. They do not use their hands or arms, but only the right leg, and it is a "good throw." Whether this is the first and typical representation of the "fight between Horus and Sut" we are unable to say, but it is very suggestive-the chief representing the day and the other the night, and the chief overthrows his enemy who is following him. The weird music is being played by those around, similar to the "Soudanese TomToms," and as soon as it has ended they take off the Leopard skin and tail and Horns head-dress and put on their ordinary head-covering. Naturally one does not expect to find all the ceremonies of "Ancestor Worship" amongst these Negrilloss; we can only find the commencement of the originals, but there is a great deal more to be learned and studied yet ; therefore, to say that these little men and women have no idea of a future or any religious ideas at all, is, in our opinion, incorrect. We believe that as we are able to gain their confidence, and to speak to them in their own language, we shall find that we are right. We must remember that all native tribes guard most jealously anything pertaining to their sacred ceremonies, and often pretend not to understand. Spencer and Gillen have proved this, perhaps more than any other men, in regard to the Australian Aborigines. The fact that the Pygmy considers that a man who is foolish has been sent down by the Great Spirit, and that he must be cared for and respected or the Great Spirit will punish them, and that they believe in the spirits of their ancestors, build little spirit houses about eighteen inches high, with a small opening, inside of which they sometimes place fruit and have one side of the head shaved during certain sacred ceremonies; must all be taken as  a further proof that they have some religious belief. They also believe in charms, make marks down the middle of their foreheads and cheeks with a red substance, obtained from trees and sometimes smear black liquid on the face. The belief that the Spirits of their Ancestors are supposed to inhabit rocks, trees and stones, etc., we find has been carried all over the world. The so-called worshipping of spirits in trees, as amongst the gipsies of Germany, or about the trees as with the Shans in Western China, or occupying houses as prepared by the Wanandi, the Australian Aborigines, the Ainu, the natives of New Guinea, the Indians in Mexico and N. and S. America and the Esquimaux, must all have originated primarily from these little people. How long ago the first exodus from here in Pygmy Land took place it is impossible to say; if you ask a Pygmy how long he has been in the forest and where he came from, he answers: "Always here, came from nowhere, always have been in the forest."
Also Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton states as follows, which is a further proof of their belief in a Supreme Spirit:- "It was during a forest storm that I received my first inkling that the Pygmies believed in a Supreme Spirit. One evening, about five, as they came to fetch me, after lying throughout the day in the forest, a wind got up and dried twigs and leaves came rustling down, while every now and then a dead branch or limb crashed to the ground. With quick glances to right and left at the tree tops, my head tracker hastened his steps ; then, uttering a shrill whistle, he placed his left hand to his mouth, made a sneezing sound into it and threw it above his head in an attitude of supplication. As the storm grew and the thunder came nearer I saw him darting anxious looks on either side, till he espied a little shrub, with leaves like a willow. Gathering a bunch of these, he pressed them into the palm of his hand, sneezed over them and again extended his hand in supplication over his head. Presently a tremendous thunderclap burst overhead, whereupon he hastily plucked a larger leaf, wrapped the other up in it, and tied then to the top of a stick, which he then held aloft, and every now and then, to the accompaniment of shrill whistles, waved it round his head. On return to camp I obtained from him an explanation of these strange proceedings. The first part of his ceremonies was an appeal to the Supreme Spirit to send away the tempest, but, as the storm continued, he besought protection  for us from falling branches torn off by the wind." Here we have the Pygmy "offering propitiation to the elemental power" - the first origin of religion. The earliest mode of worship recognisable was in propitiation of the superhuman power. This power was elemental of necessity, a power that was objectified by means of the living type; and of necessity the object of propitiation, invocation, and solicitation was the power itself and not the types by which it was imagined in the language of signs. If we use the word worship, it was the propitiation of the power in the thunder and the storm; not the thunder or storm itself.
Since writing the above, we learn from The Standard, 19th February 1907, that Major Powell-Cotton has returned from a visit to Africa, where he spent some time amongst the Pygmies with his wife. We quote from The Standard the result of a correspondent's interview with him, and this proves what we have written before to be correct. "During our wanderings in the forest we came across many curious little structuresdiminutive dwellings, which we were told were ghost-houses. These were built to propitiate the shades of departed chiefs, who, until a resting place is provided for then, nightly disturb the Pygmy villages. There the people sacrifice and place food for the spirits of the departed. We obtained much interesting information regarding the existence of religious beliefs, even amongst these Pygmies, and learnt that in some spot in the innermost recesses of the forest an imposing religious rite takes place on certain occasions, in which an altar is erected, whereon offerings are laid while the Pygmies arrange themselves in a semicircle and perform their devotions."
In Egypt the oldest god of all was Bes as is well shown in Dr Budge's last book, "The Gods of the Egyptians," (1) vol. ii. P. 286, and anyone seeing this and the Pygmies, even if he were not an Egyptologist, would not fail to identify the two in form, figure and dress. Bes here has the same type of face as the Pygmy; the yellow plume of feathers, La-gou-ma, is worn on the head, and the "Horus Lock," the green and yellow "dress," are also worn, and the tail of the Leopard hangs down behind : in fact, these little people have some of the principal features of the
(1 We are much indebted to Dr W. Budge and Messrs Methuen for being allowed to reproduce these beautiful coloured plates in this work, and take this opportunity of sincerely thanking them for their kind permission.)
 earliest mythology of old Egypt, and no doubt Bes, who was at the later date made to represent a type of Horns I, was at first their "Chief of the Nomes," and it was from these Pygmies that the first mythology of Egypt sprung. All have been brought on, added to, and made use of in the various types from the earliest mythos-astronomical, stellar, lunar and solar mythology, and finally the Eschatology which we know so well.
Although the Pygmies are now only found in the Congo forests and in proximity to the sources of the Nile, it is well known that their domain extended over a much wider area in former times, and there is no doubt, from the close anatomical relation, as well as by the similarity of their "sacred ceremonies," that the "Bushmen" are very nearly related to these Pygmies. We cannot agree with Maspero that the Egyptian Hieroglyphic which he states represents "dwarfs," not pygmies, is a correct view. It represents "a race of people," and there could not be any race of dwarfs in the true acceptation of the term. These old Egyptians would have no words, signs or symbols to distinguish between the two; they would simply represent them as "little people," and that must be the Pygmies -and thus we find out that they come from the South of the land of Punt. Maspero tells us that "all that lay beyond Punt was held to be a fabulous region, avoid or intermediate boundary land between the world of men and that of the gods-the island of the Double"-land of the Shades, where the living came into contact with the souls of the departed, and, following the accounts given by Schiaparelli, Erman and himself, Maspero says further:-"It" (the Land of the Shades beyond Punt) "was inhabited by the Dangas, tribes of half-savage dwarfs 1 whose grotesque faces and wild gestures reminded the Egyptians of the god Besnone knew better than they the dance of the god. We find that King Assi of the 5th dynasty, B.C. 3000, procured one which a certain Biudri had purchased in Punt. His wildness and activity, and the extraordinary positions which he assumed, made a lively impression on the courtiers at the time, and nearly a century later there were still reminiscences of him." Seventy years after King Assi, an officer, Heru-Khuf, was sent by Pepi II, 6th dynasty, to bring back a Pygmy alive, and in good health, from the land of the great trees, away to the South. That the Danga came
(1 Probably this was the " Ti-Kiti-Ki " Men of the Double Cave. we shall draw particular attention to it later.)
 from the South is proved by a later inscription at Karnak, and that the word meant "dwarf," or "short or stunted person," is clear from the determinate of a short person or one of stunted growth. The whole of this account is perfectly straightforward and of indubitable reference to the Pygmies. Professor Maspero's argument about these not being Pygmies will not "hold water" when We take all into consideration. The "Land of the Shades," which he calls a fabulous region, was the "Khui Land" the Land of the Spirits and Gods, and was depicted by Hieroglyphics thus which was first mapped out in the Heavens, and after as part of Amenta and was represented terrestrially by the Egyptians by the islands and lakes at the head of the Nile, where these men, so to speak, first sprang forth, and it was here again that the souls would return. This Khui Land sign is very old, and is found in evidence all over the world-on the Australian boomerangson the stones in Ireland-on the backs of negroes in West Africa belonging to the secret tribal societies, etc. All this we shall fully explain later on.
We believe that "the Island of the Double,"(1) except we use the term "the Double Cave," is very much later and does not date further back than the Solar mythos-the "Khui Land" dates back to the stellar. Until Maspero understands the primordial, as well as other Egyptologists, we are afraid he will always be going off the line and missing the track. We must go back to the beginning of these Pygmies and learn all that they can teach us, then all the totemic ceremonies of the Nilotic and other aboriginal negroes, before we can get to the origin of all. These Pygmies were the first inhabitants of the world-time, different environments and climates would affect this race in many ways, but their anatomy and sacred ceremonies would be
(1 We are uncertain what Maspevo really means by the expression of the "Island of the Double." If he mean the Double Horizon, that was when Shu lifted up the Heavens, and came into existence during the Solar Mythos. We have no doubt that the text means the "Island of the Double Cave," where the mummified Osiris came forth in Spiritual form, as Ra, originally Horns I in the Stellar Mythos. It was the Khui Land-the Land of the Spirits, because it was here that the dead emerged from the Amenta in Spiritual form, after passing through all the dangers and difficulties of the Tuat. It was the opening after the last hour of the night and the passage of the twelve divisions. This Island of the Double Cave is found amongst the Central Americans and in our 30°.-Full explanation, see later.)
 the least disturbed or different from the original, and this is what we find: many authorities, Deniker amongst others, express an opinion that there is no relation between the Pygmies and the Bushmen. One cannot judge by language alone. The fact that the Australians are composed of a number of tribes, each of them occupying a definite tract of country, and each speaking a dialect so distinct that a member of one tribe cannot possibly, without learning its dialect, understand a member of the next tribe, is a sufficient example. More than this must be taken into account. Whilst words can be modified and changed with more or less ease, in savage tribes it is quite otherwise in the case of customs and beliefs, more especially with those associated with sacred matters.
When once these have become settled, they are of all things, amongst savage people, the least liable to change. What was considered right and proper by their forefathers, it was only right and proper that they should do. As example: although the organisation of the tribes Dieri and Urabunna, in Northern Australia, amongst whom the two exogamous intermarrying groups still persist, there is no evidence of any kind to show that the practice is an abnormal development ; it is the oldest, and although the central tribes have been split into four or eight, this still indicates the retention of the ancient customs, but may be considered as a step in the evolution from the oldest towards our present state of marriage laws.
We are glad to see, from a letter published in The Lancet, 14th October 1905, from that great Egyptologist, Dr Edward Naville, that he agrees with us(1): he states that the Danga of the Kings of the Sixth Dynasty must be Pygmies; at the same time he states that from the Egyptian texts there were also "dwarfs," the deformed, who would be kept in the houses of the rich for amusement. He states that the Danga must belong to an African tribe which had a special propensity to dancing. Colonel Harrison tells us how fond the Pygmies are of dancing in most grotesque attitudes, in which they also invite their women to join, and he was unable to restrain himself from boisterous laughter at the sight of their gyrations. Dr Edward Naville further states: "If the case of the Danga is still doubtful I can quote two instances in which it seems to be certain that the in
(1 In answer to our letters we had written in The Lancet in August and September 1905.)
 scriptions mean Pygmies. In the sculptures, which describe a great festival, in the temple of Bubastis, we see a procession of priests, among whom are three small men, marching along, and holding long canes. They have a title, which Brusgel translates 'guards,' 'beadles,' something connected with the police of the temple. These guards are neither children nor dwarfs; they are well-proportioned, and are certainly Pygmies. They are probably not Egyptians, for we find in the same ceremony another African population-the Anu or Anti of Nubia, coming from the South. A third extraordinary figure is a man having a face like 'Bes' but a well-proportioned body. The inscription, which is above the figure, cannot be understood, it ends with 'nanasu nana,' which may be this man's language. Another instance, where we find the Pygmies mentioned, it is a nome or district inscription from the temple of Philae, of the time of Ptolemy IV. It begins with the nome of Nubia, when we find the words: 'I give my bow to His Majesty that he may subdue the Anti ... the dwarfs of the countries of the South bring their tributes to his palace.'" Now, it is clear that here we must translate pygmies and not dwarfs. Dwarfs could not pay tribute, it must be a settled population. Here again, as at Bubastis, they are quoted with the Anti and are said to come from the South, where we expect to find the Pygmies. We know of what a value the Pygmies' bows and arrows are, and even with their small bows and little poisoned arrows they are a terror to all their foes, and so they would bring these to His Majesty to help him in his wars, as the greatest gift they had to assist him, and we know that they are well-formed little men and women and not a distortion or dwarfs. The word Anti . . . would probably refer to the AnRut or Ante-Rut, a people older than the Dynastic Egyptians but later than the Pygmies.
PYGMIES AND BUSHMEN
They have in common:
1. Projection of the jaws and lips.
2. The flatness of the nose and the broadness of it.
3. Lobeless ears-ill defined.
4. The elongation of the palate.
5. The large size of the teeth.
6. The same character of the hair-pepper-corn.
 7. The smallness of stature, and show the same skill in drawing, which the negroes do not possess (negroes having more articulate sounds to express their meaning would not require picture language).
8. The convexity of the sub-nasal space.
9. Occasionally and mostly in young women-Steatopygia.
10. Many words are the same, weapons are the same-small
bows and poisoned arrows and small spears.
11. Sacred ceremonies are the same as far as is known.
12. Long forearm.
We contend that our opinion is conclusive of what we have stated; that there is a very close racial affinity, and that the Kattea and the Bushmen are an offshoot, and the latter, perhaps, of a little higher type than the Pygmy. Deniker and others do not appear to have studied their "languages" and "sacred ceremonies," which we claim as absolutely conclusive, with the anatomical conditions.
They live on roots, insects, and largely on snakes; fruit, when they can get it, nuts, and small animals. Their weapons consist of small spears and bows and arrows, the arrows having poisoned tips. They also make large strong wood-fibre nets with which to catch animals.
The Pygmies represented the earliest human form of the seven primal towers-not giants; the giants were the zootypes of the superhuman powers-not human, but the Pygmies are. In the Egyptian Mythos, Ptah was the Great Architect of the Universe, but not the universe as a cosmological creation. Ptah was a Pygmy and with his assistant Pygmies created Amenta or the lower earth, which was represented by a passage hollowed out of the earth, as an ideograph of the earth that was formed by Ptah and his Khenemmu-formed for the passage of the "manes" and the sun and moon for the first time-in Solar Mythosthrough the earth, and not around as formerly (in the Stellar and Lunar Mythos). In the Stellar and Lunar the manes or soul had to pass around the earth, and was carried to the Celestial North by a superhuman Power that was preanthropomoyphic, represented by zootype giants. Now Ptah, with his assistants, formed or completed Amenta through the earth, thus forming a lower earth or creation which the manes had to pass through before emerging as a Spiritual body. Before Ptah and his Put-cycle of powers there  was a secret earth conceived in the new, where nothing grew and no evil or sata had yet been formed, and no light had appeared; but this earth of eternity was not the world of human life, and no human beings were created there. There was no man or woman in the true Mythos. This second earth, created by Ptah and his assistants (Amenta), constituted, with the earth, "the double earth," which was different to the division of North and South in the Stellar Mythos. This upper and lower earth each had a sky, represented thus in the Ritual, and the Tatt symbol was here erected in Amenta as a type of eternal stability, and it was portrayed to form the gateway of eternity in the region of Tattu. This double Tatt, represented in the Solar Mythos, the pillars of Sut and Horus-or South and North-the sun and moon, revolving, passed through Amenta, giving light to the passing of the manes. Ptah thus created the circle, of which the egg is the Hieroglyphic-sign. M. Maspero is wrong in his decipherment when he represents the earth as an oblong box ("The Dawn of Civilisation"), his oblong box being that part of Amenta represented by the Nile valley. He has left out the sky of Nut, and does not conceive the "double earth," which was created by Ptah and his assistants as a tunnel for the passages of the heavenly bodies and manes, which were now (in the Solar Mythos) to make the passage through the mount instead of around. Now that there was a different arrangement when the double earth was formed and built by Ptah, Seb made a treaty between Horus and Sut and called them from their two stations, North and South, to the mountain of the middle earth, the Solar mount in Ainnu, where the two earths met. This is Ptah's house of the two earths in which is the boundary of North and South-the meeting point of the two earths, upper and lower, and the junction of the domains of the North and South in the earlier division of the whole. As soon as Amenta was finished, the East and West were added to the North and South, and the heavens in the four quarters or the square were established on the solstices and equinoxes as the house of Ptah. The two earths are the upper earth of Seb and the lower earth of Ptah-TatanenLord of Eternity. The inheritance of the earth was now given to Horus, "so Horus became Chief of the Land," which now for ever consisted of two lands. He wears the double diadem as  ruler of the double earth; he is now traverser of the two earths as well as uniter of both horizons.
Amenta consisted of a world of various states and many parts, including an Upper and Lower Egypt-the 7 nomes of the Heptanomes, the 14 domains that were based upon the lower half of the Lunar cycle, and the 15 domains that belonged to the Solar reckoning-Ritual, chap. cxlii. In the Egyptian divine dynasties Ptah is God the father in one character and Iu, the son, in the other. In the person of Iu he is the youthful deity who rises from the dead both as the Sun-god and as the soul in the image of the Sahu-mummy risen, with the Solar-hawk for its head as a symbol of the soul issuing from the body of Kheper-Ptah. Iu, as the son, is also representative of the Put-cycle or company of creators. Here the gods were the powers gathered into One God as Supreme. These were first 7-Stellar; they became 8-Lunar; they are 9 in the Put-cycle of Ptah-Solar; they were 10 as the sephiroth of the Kabalists, and they are 12 in the final heaven of Atum-Ra. Thus we see the old wise men of Egypt first represented the Solar in human type, and that type was primordial man, represented by the Pygmies, the old Egyptians knowing that they originated or descended from them.
We have entered into larger details with regard to the Pygmies because we think it is important, these being the first or "primitive man," from whom all others sprang and first peopled this world. They were the founders of language-sign language first, with few articulate sounds; as time went on more articulate sounds were formed and learnt, and also the beginning of mythology. All originated here in the Upper Nile valley and forest and spread N. E. S. and W. over the world.
At the present day these Upper Nile negroes and many of the Bantu tribes, Masai negroes, the Seri of Mexico, the Australian Aborigines, American Indians (N. and S.) and others.
1. Practise knocking out the front teeth.(1)
2. Practise circumcision and some partial subincision, but this ceremony is not performed until the boy is seven or eight years old; neither is it carried out in the camp but in a secluded spot in the bush, and the boy has to remain there some time.
(1 In some of the tribes one or more of the customs have fallen into disuse or altered a little, but in all sufficient remains to prove one common origin.)
 3. Practise cicatrisation on the body or raise scars, and on the female some of these tribes excise the clitoris at puberty.
4. Practise Ancestral worship, so called.
5. Have Totems, which are beasts, birds, reptiles, fishes and vegetables, all of which are held sacred by each clan or class.
6. Hold Taboo as regards relations in marriage laws, even to the mother-in-law. The Maories have some totemic rites and ceremonies, and many words of Egyptian origin.
7. All the negroes in Unyoro and Uganda have Totems, and these are divided into twenty-nine classes or clans, each with a Totem. Every family has its place of origin clearly written in the memory of the nation, and each clan holds one special Totem sacred, in so far as they will not eat or destroy it. In every tribe, without exception, there exists a firm belief in the Reincarnation of Ancestors.
8. All have the same tradition about the Great Evil Serpent.
These sacred ceremonies, however, have not yet been studied or observed so well and accurately as Spencer and Gillen have those of the Arunta tribes, but the reader has only to compare the rites and ceremonies of each and all to see that they are identical and must have emanated from one original centre. No doubt some of the Nile negroes were either driven back as they went North in their numerous wars that occurred at various periods, or remained in their primitive state here in the forests, never having had the chance of developing by evolution into a higher state. Thus we find that these are like the Australian aborigines who apparently never have improved because they have been cut off from all those sources which tend to develop, enlighten and produce a higher type of being, and some of the higher types of negroes may also have been in former times driven back from the North, when those of their descendants evolved into a still further enlightened condition-as, for example, the Masi, who are of a higher type of features. We see, on some of the monuments of ancient Egypt, figures depicted which may well be taken for these.
Dr Morton, recanting an earlier opinion, says:- "I am compelled by a mass of irresistible evidence to modify the opinion expressed in the 'Crania Egyptiaca,' namely, that the Egyptians were an Asiatic people. Seven years of additional investigation,  together with greatly increased materials, have convinced me that they are neither Asiatics nor Europeans, but aboriginal indigenous inhabitants of the Nile or some contiguous region-peculiar in their physiognomy, isolated in their institutions, and forming one of the primordial centres of the human family." The Nile negroes were probably one of the first of the "An-rut race," the race that was the first and oldest race of men, after the Pygmies, as both Eusebius and Syncellus state that amongst the Egyptians there was a certain tablet, called the "Old Chronicle," containing 30 dynasties in 113 descents, during a period of 36,525 years, ("Eusebius Chronicles," "Syncellus Chronicles"). The Ruti are those of monumental Egypt, and as An is the Egyptian for old or the oldest, or first, so the An-rut means the first or oldest race of men.
Haddon's description of the natives of the Papuan Gulf district of New Guinea is strikingly suggestive that they have ceremonials and sacred symbols which correspond to those of the Australians and therefore the Nilotic negroes, and that they have the same concentric circles and spirals painted on their bodies like the Australians; as those of the Secret Tribal Societies of the West coast of Africa, described by Brother Fitzgerald Marriott. These, no doubt, were all of the same-time exodus, the Ainu being driven North and the other South as they were pushed on by those coming out after them in a higher state of evolution.
Since writing the foregoing, we find from Dr C. G. Seligmann's paper, read before the Geographical Society and published in their Journal, March 1906, further confirmation of our opinions. Dr Seligmann accompanied an expedition to British New Guinea, and when speaking of the Toro, which appeared to be the tribal name of the Bensback natives, he states that "one of their favourite attitudes was to stand on one leg, with the sole of the other applied just above the knee of the leg which supports the weight of the body," in fact the same attitude that we still find used amongst the Dinkas of the swamps o f the Nile at the present time. The various tribes that he visited, he says, "are totemic folk," with descent in the male totems in some, and female totems in others. Marriage laws and burial customs are the same as we find amongst the aboriginal Australians. They also use the "bull-roarers" in their initiation ceremonies. Their hair also must be classed as the same-frizzly-curly-wavy and some  almost straight. Their calaphic indices are the same. From photographs produced it would be impossible to say that these were not aboriginal Australians. There can be no doubt that these people are of the same "exodus" as the Australians-i.e. Nilotic Negroes-at the time of the Stellar mythos. It is a pity that more of their sacred ceremonies were not observed; time, however, will give us all.
Captain Macdonald states that in several islands, belonging to the Solomon group, there is said to be a small race of men, about 4 ft. high, who inhabit the mountains of the interior, and will not have any intercourse with the "natives" They go in "families" and roam from place to place, and do not build houses. They have only bows and arrows, the latter deadly poisonous. Probably these are the remnants of the Pygmy race of the first exodus-Paleolithic man, who have not yet been exterminated by the Neolithic, who now form the "Nations of the Isles," and whose customs and totemic ceremonies are identical with those of the "Australian aborigines" almost in every particular; in fact, they have the earliest Stellar Mythos. No doubt, in years to come, much more will be known about these people.
All these ceremonies are the acting of the drama of the Egyptian mythology-the survival of the myths in ceremonies, games, usages, is totally independent of the proverbial short memories of savages; the thing that had been they repeated, like any other act of nature, without troubling themselves about the origin or end, and these customs carry their message more simply than any written record in the world, when we know the clue to their primordial character.
It is only by taking into account the ages of time that have elapsed since the origin of primitive man and his evolution, and various exodes that must have taken place from Egypt and the Nile valley at different periods, that one can grasp the history of the past. Even in these islands, geology teaches us that at least two glacial epochs have taken place-i.e. twice 25,827 years and how many more no one can say.
Evolution is slow and gradual, but probably the second exodus was that when man had arrived at the totem state, present living descendants of which are found in the Nilotic and other negroes in N.E. Africa, and of which the Australian, Solomon Islanders and New Guinea aborigines are, at least, remaining  descendants, still practically in the same state as their ancestors at the time of migration from Africa. Remains of these have also been found in Cornwall (see later), also in Southern Europe. This must have occurred long ages before the other exodus took place, because after they had perfected their Stellar mythos, the Lunar and Solar followed, and then exodes took place, as may be seen depicted by the remains of the temples of the Druids, people of Yucatan, India, China, etc. No doubt one of the reasons why we still find some of the original descendants of early man in Central Africa, is, that some of them were "driven back" by those who had further evolved in a higher state, and have so remained buried in the "depths of darkness" that it is only now they have come to light through the explorer and civilisation. Also; we must not forget that when two savage peoples, at anything like a decidedly different level of culture meet, there is some small amount of amalgamation, and although the men of the lower grade would not be allowed to marry the women of the  higher grade, on the other hand the women of the lower would be lawful prey to the men of the stronger nation.
Against the argument that we are not right in stating that man originated from here, and that all primal exodes took place to other parts of the world from here, the only one that could be advanced is that there were more centres than one from which Ainu, or Hairy Man of Japan. No. 1-The hair is somewhat straight; but in No. 2 we note the curly frizzly hair. Compare these with Australian natives and Nilotic negroes. Anatomically they are the same. Skulls are the same-1220 cc.
man emanated-in other words there were several, which, so far as we know, have never been advanced, nor have we been able to find any reasons for supposing that such was the case. That the various races of aborigines have evolved all their "Totemic Rites" from their own surroundings, would, to our mind, be impossible, seeing that all these are practically identical all over the world. There have been changes in the forms and ceremonies from the original by additions and eliminations, which can be  easily accounted for by time, evolution, climate and the different surroundings in the countries they found themselves in, but we feel sure that is enough, if the order of nature and evolution be but observed, in making the knowledge of these things depend on the knowledge of the things which have gone before.
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