THE Chaldeans, who were a College of Priests connected with the Babylonian empire, were celebrated for their extensive learning. It is said that they took their origin from Zeratusth, an Egyptian Priest, and the mysteries instituted were the same as those of the Egyptians at the time of Isis, Horus and Osiris, and, like the Greeks, very few were ever initiated into the full secrets, and it was only by passing the most terrible ordeal that anyone could be permitted to learn them all.
Josephus, as well as other historians, agrees with the above.
Their first map of the Celestial Universe-in clay tablet-was into seven nomes-this was depicted thus, which is the same as the seven nomes of Egypt. Egypt was originally divided Into seven nomes-this was the first division into nomes-and represented the seven Celestial Glorious Ones, (Little Bear) in a Terrestrial form, in the Stellar Mythos, thus Afterwards they added a central one-THE ONE-around which the seven others revolved in the Celestial Heaven, and THE ONE who governed the seven in the Terrestrial. The Great or Mighty Prince who ruled over this other seven, which they depicted by eight divisions. The Chaldeans followed this also, which can be proved and seen by their tablets, where they show the heavens in eight segments, with diameters running from the four cardinal points thus, the external circle of which they  [ 209] afterwards omitted and symbolised thus, which is the same as the Egyptian The Sumarians, Chaldeans and Babylonians, in fact, obtained all their laws and learning from the Egyptians. The Code of Hammurabi the Sumarians copied from the Egyptians and handed on to the Chaldeans.
Their old company of primeval gods, mentioned in the "Seven Tablets of Creation," were eight in number and may be classed as four pairs, the same as the Egyptians, for instance:
Aushar-Kislar, correspond to the Egyptian Nu-Nut
Kerkui-Kerkuit, etc., etc.
Later on the Egyptians added four more and mapped out the heavens in twelve divisions-the twelve signs of the Zodiac. The Chaldeans did the same, or rather copied them. Their history of Creation is a copy of the Egyptian; also the great battle between Horus I and Sut, and their underworld or Hell. But these gods were not eight or twelve different gods but attributes of THE ONE. This is clearly shown in the Egyptian Texts. When they first divided the heavens into four divisions they assigned four different powers or attributes to these and four consorts for the same:-
Nu, name of a god or attribute of God, represented the great watery vapour from which this world consolidated primarily.
Nut was the female counterpart.
Hehu represented the fire and heat of the Sun.
Hehuit was his female counterpart.
Kekui, represented light and darkness or night and day.
Kekuit was his female counterpart.
Kerk, powers of nature at rest; these were the attributes of the two forms or first.
Kerhet was his female counterpart.
And were divided further into eight and twelve, the Chaldeans did the same, and each different name of the powers or attributes  have been called separate and different gods and goddesses by those who should know better, and thus may Egyptologists "have become mixed," because they have not traced all these "powers" back to "THE ONE," and perceived that by evolution different names had to be added and given to the various powers which dawned upon them, and which they recognised, as their brains expanded in knowledge and observation, as the only way that their true idea and meaning could be expressed, having only a rudimentary language at the time.
The Babylonian Tiamet, which waged war against Marduk, the Champion chosen by the gods, was held to be the incarnation of all evil. This monster was 300 miles long, and had a mouth 10 feet wide, and moved in undulations 6 miles high, and was 100 feet round his body, corresponds to the great serpent of the Warramunga of the Australian Aborigines, which was a copy of the Egyptian Sut, when he battled with Horus I. The tales are the same in each instance and he is the same as "the Leviathan" of the Hebrew-the "serpent of many twistings and folds" (see Job xli.; Jeremiah li. 34; Isaiah xiv. 29). He was hunted for slaughter by Gabriel, and with the assistance of Yahweh was slain by him. Gabriel here is the counterpart of Marduk, Yahweh taking the place of Anshar as the head of the gods. Although the Hebrews obtained their Hell direct from the Egyptians they took their "Leviathan" from the Babylonians, but these latter obtained it direct from the Egyptians at a much earlier date, and we must not forget that this great serpent, Apep of the dynastic and Solar-worship time, took its origin and was brought on from the pre-dynastic Stellar Mythos-Horus I. and Sut-the first fight between light and darkness. When this earth was surrounded by thick watery vapour so that the sun's rays could not penetrate, Sut was the primary-the god of darkness-but as soon as this vapour cooled down and the sun's rays penetrated to the face of the earth, then light superseded darkness-Sut was deposed and Horus I. became primary. When this was brought on in dynastic times, Ra took the place of Horus I. and Sut that of the great Apep, and the fight was day and night-Ra overcoming the darkness of night each day.
The seven-headed dragon and beast of the Book of Revelation, like the seven-headed basilisk serpent mentioned in "Pistis Sophia," have their origin in the seven-headed serpent which is  mentioned in the Pyramid Text, and in Revelation ix. 19 horses are referred to which had "tails like unto serpents, and had heads," which is a copy of the monster which inhabited one of the Pylons of the Tuat.
The Babylonians made offerings to the dead in the same way as the Egyptians did ; in fact, all nations did, and Dr W. Budge, speaking of the offerings taken to the tombs of the dead in his "Book of the Gods of the Egyptians," page 86, says:- "It is possible that certain simple folk may have been led to believe that because meat offerings and drink offerings in abundance were taken to the tombs, the deceased must naturally partake of them, and it is more than probable that the Egyptians, in a semi-savage state, made such offerings because they believed them necessary for the dead." But this practice was simply a continuation of the customs of the earliest Egyptians-earliest man-the Pygmies, and still is amongst them and all native tribes all over the world-" offerings to the spirits of the departed," as a. Propitiation, so that the spirits may not come back and work them any harm. These nations still believe, as their forefathers did, that the spirit may return and do them "good or ill," and so you find "spirit houses," with food placed inside, to propitiate them. This was the original, and the Egyptians worked out from this first two things-that is, the Ka, the Spirit, and the Ba, the Soul. The Ka or spirit after death separated from the Ba or soul and went before the Divine Creator to be judged, and, if justified, then returned to the soul and could travel after throughout the universe. After it was justified the spiritual body was called the Sahu. All these things took a long time to work out, and many Egyptologists have overlooked this : also their names as well as others which were afterwards added. These offerings" are still carried on in the Christian Church, but by evolution they are now called "Offerings to the Church" - "Easter Offerings," "Christmas Offerings." One has only to go into a Roman Catholic church to see the abundant offerings to "the Saints," or walk into any churchyard of orthodox Christians and still see the flowers, etc., on the graves of the dead-the remnants of the evolution of past ages-the offerings to the Spirits. The foregoing will answer Dr Budge's (1) questions on page cxi. "as to when this spiritual body
(1 "The Gods of the Egyptians," by Dr E. A. Wallis Budge. Published by Methuen & Co.)
 began its existence. Unfortunately no satisfactory answer can at present be given to it, for no text yet discovered supplies the necessary information." No text gives it because it existed long before; how far back it would be difficult to say, but as we find the Aboriginal Australians and all native tribes throughout the world and the Pygmies still believe and practise this rite, it would date long before the "Dynastic Egyptians." The skeletons of man, found in the earliest quarternary period or Pleistocene age, and also in the upper quarternary period, have been few. Apparently the mode of burial of the present Pygmies was followed-i.e. they had no "burial ground" but buried them where they died and moved on, and so we know little or nothing about their weapons, mode of life or ideas; but in the later Paleolithic age we find some evidence. In the Neolithic, ample evidence of the commencement of their Mythos, when it must have existed.
The Babylonians copied the Egyptians but they confounded the "good Zootypes" of the Egyptians with the "bad ones" and made them all bad, perverting the whole Eschatology because they did not understand their uranographic creation, and the Hebrew legends are mere drivelling nonsense rendering their Zootypes anthropomorphically.
We cannot agree with Dr Budge that "the Egyptians borrowed their knowledge of the signs of the Zodiac, together with much else, from the Greeks, who had derived a great deal of their astronomical lore from the Babylonians" ("The Gods of the Egyptians," vol. ii. page 312). He says further: "It is at present a subject for conjecture at what period the Babylonians first divided the heavens into sections by means of the constellations of the Zodiac, but we are fully justified in assuming that the earliest forms of the Zodiac date from an exceedingly primitive time." Why, the knowledge of all this was "old" in Egypt before the Babylonians even existed or knew anything about it, as we shall prove later in this work. The Egyptians had worked out all the architecture of the heavens, and their priests had carried the same with them to all parts of the world-not only the Northern heavens, but the Southern, as well. Probably they worked out the South before the North, and the Druids and the Mayas and the Incas knew it all from the Priests of Egypt, the earliest probably thousands of years before the Babylonian nation  existed. The Babylonians copied and obtained all their knowledge from the Egyptians, and we are surprised that Dr Budge should write that they borrowed from the Greeks; they were old and degenerating and in decay before the Greek nation was born ! ! Well may he say that "it is a subject for conjecture at what period the Babylonians first divided the heavens into sections, etc.," because they never did; what they knew they borrowed either direct from the Egyptians or Sumarians-the latter obtained it from Egypt. It was the ancient Egyptians who mapped out the heavens into 12 divisions in the North, 12 divisions in the South, and 12 in the centre, making 36 in all, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac. To whatever part of the world the Priests went they carried this knowledge with them ; this proof lies more in the ancient remains that we find in various parts of the world than anything else-the 3 circles, the 2 greater bisecting the middle and lesser, and each divided into 12 parts-these are much older than the seven tablets of Creation by thousands o f years. If this is not so, how can Dr Budge and other Assyriologists explain or get over the facts we bring forward in this work? It is very well to say that "whether the Babylonians were themselves the inventors of such origins-i.e. (the Zodiac), or whether they are to be attributed to the earlier non-semitic Sumarian inhabitants of the country, cannot be said"; and when he states "that the Greeks borrowed the Zodiac from the Babylonians, and then the Greeks introduced it into Egypt, probably during the Ptolemaic period," (1) it appears to us that Dr Budge must have left this part of "the Gods of Egypt" to be written by one of his assistants, who knew nothing about the history of the past. We should be grieved to think that Dr Budge, in all seriousness, believed and thought as the Aryanists and Assyriologists of the past have done. Surely, researches into recent discoveries, at least, must convince him differently, or how does he account for even the various three circles of stones found throughout the world, each divided into twelve parts, the two greater bisecting the less? The "Photographs of the Nomes of Egypt, representing the divisions of the heavens," which the old Priests had worked
(1 Herodotus considers that the names of the gods of Greece are derived from Egypt, the Pelasgians being the intermediaries who brought them to Greece, and he attributes absolutely to the same Pelasgians the carrying there the "Cabiric Mysteries,'' which he considers and believes were brought by them from Egypt. Even at this time Egypt was old, and it was late in her history.)
 out and carried with them in the various exodes throughout the world, besides other mural and Pietra Libra" evidence, must be acknowledged to be thousands of years older than the Babylonians or Sumarians! ! These latter cannot be overlooked or passed over if we wish to elucidate and obtain the true history of bygone ages of the life on this planet-its origin and evolution.
And surely, because the Egyptians, when they were decaying as a great nation, employed some Greeks to paint some Mural scenes for them, it cannot be in any manner of way a proof that these men introduced the Zodiac!
The twelve legends of the solar hero, Gilgames, relating to the twelve signs and the twelve labours of Hercules, are comparatively late, as they are based upon the Zodiac of twelve signs, which belongs to the final formation of the heaven that was preceded by the heaven in ten divisions, and earlier still in seven. The Greeks, with their indifference to facts and their fondness for figures and fancies, played pranks with the Astronomical Mythology, and mixed the crocodile, which was a good dragon, with Apap, the reptile. The blind god, "hungering for the morn," is a Greek figure of Orion, which does not explain anything- but Orion is the Stellar representation, by night, of Horns, the Solar god in the darkness of Amenta, who is An-er-f, the blind Horus, whose sight was restored to him at dawn.
In the Babylonian astronomy, Saher-Sahu is identical by name with the Egyptian Orion-that is, Horns in his resurrection as the Sahu or glorified likeness of the risen god or soul the Sahu in the planisphere, who represents the manes rising from Amenta to paradise above. The planisphere contains a number of Egyptian deities. They are the gods and goddesses of Egypt -the mythological personages and zootypes that make up the vast procession which moves on for ever round and round, according to the revolutions of the earth or the apparent revolution of the sphere-at least a dozen can be identified.
1. The Ram-headed Amen-with the constellation
2. Osiris, the Bull of Eternity-with the sign of Taurus.
3. Sut-Horus-Twins with the Gimini.
4. The Beetle-headed Kheper-ptah-with the sign of the Beetle, later, Crab.
5. The Lion-faced Atum-with the sign of Leo.
6. The Virgin Neith-with the constellation Virgo.
 7. Hur-Makhu of the Scales-with the sign Libra.
8. Isis-Serkh, the Scorpion Goddess-with the sign of Scorpio.
9. Shu and Tefnut, figured as the Archer - with the sign of Sagittarius.
10. Num, the Goat-headed, who presided over the abysswith the sign of Capricornus.
11. Menal, the Divine Wet Nurse-with the sign of Aquarius.
12. Horus of the Two Crocodiles-with the sign of Pisces.
It is not Possible that all these gods and goddesses and nature Powers of Egypt were constellated as figures in the universe by any other than the Egyptian mystery teachers of the heavens.
The deity of the Pole Star was known to the earlier Chinese and Japanese as the supreme god in nature, who had his abode on the great Peak or Mountai; this god the Chinese called Tien-hwang Ta-Ti-god of the Pole Star ("Religion in China," page 109).
Shang-ti, the supreme ruler, was the highest object of worship. His heavenly abode, Tsze-wei, is "a celestial space round the North Pole," and his throne was indicated by the Pole Star (Legge, "Chinese Classics," vol. iii. pl. 1, page 34, and Chinese Repository," vol. iv. page 194).
This is the most sacred and ancient form of Chinese worship a round hillock is the altar on which sacrifice was offered to him. In the Archic Chow Ritual (Li) it says:- "When the sovereign worshipped Shang-ti, he offered up on a round hillock a first-born male as a whole burnt sacrifice."
Both the Mount and the first-born male are typical. Anup was the first male Ancestor. The hillock is an image of the Mount. This deity was also known to the Chinese as the "Divine Prince of the great Northern Equilibrium" who promulgated the laws of the silent wheels of the heaven's palace," or the cycle of time determinated by the revolution of the stars (De Groot). This was the Stellar Mythos of the Egyptians.
It is stated in a very ancient Chinese manuscript, called Pih-Kea-Sing, the date of which is said to be 3000 B.C., that the Chinese originally came from the North-west as colonists, the whole number of whom did not amount to more than a hundred families, whose names are still preserved in this manuscript, and are the same as we find in China at the present time. They came over the heights of Kwan-lun towards the borders of Hwang-ho,  subdued and perhaps exterminated in succession the barbarous clans which they found in the country. In this manuscript is shown the head of the first Buddhist, called the "Messenger of God," and of him it is said, "The Holy One appeared from the West." The head of the same shows "two horns," symbolical of Solar descent, which the Israelites assigned to Moses, Mosheh or Amosis, the regenerator of their creed.
These people had considerable knowledge in the arts necessary to social life. They could write, but their writing was in hieroglyphics. They knew the course of the stars, and had the same astronomical knowledge as the ancient Egyptians; also the same ideas of symbolism and a similar Eschatology, and they had made out the same cycles in time. Their always had the same meaning as the Egyptian ank or Hebrew Tau. Christian. How far all their hieroglyphics correspond to the ancient Egyptian we are unable to say, but history show that these hieroglyphics were the images of the things represented in life, and many that we have seen are identical. They were the first or original writings, and they have been altered at the present day by the addition of a number of straight lines which have gradually obliterated the original. Only on such monuments as those of Yu and Mount Thrae-shan, in the province of Shan-tung, can we still see the original images, and in these characters one may yet trace a great similarity to those in use amongst the ancient Egyptians. Also on some very ancient Chinese coins Egyptian hieroglyphics have been found.
Tai-Hao, the great celestial, was the first mythical or astronomical ruler in the Chinese divine dynasties. With him commenced the mystic diagrams called Yi or changes, which were eight in number. These were revealed to him by the dragonhorse that issued from the yellow river, or the (representation) Milky Way. Tai-Hao corresponds to Anup, the inventor of astronomy and first ruler of the Pole Star. The dragon-horse is the same as the Egyptian water-horse that was combined with the crocodile in Apt, goddess of the Great Bear and mother of the seven rulers. According to M. Philastre, in his version of the Yi king, the name of the Chow dynasty and of the Chow Yi  divinising-book, signifies circular movement, the revolution embracing the whole universe, the movement of the Pole. Chow Yi would mean the changes of the Pole and the Pole Stars in precession. Thus the Chow dynasty of the sons of heaven would be the seven successive rulers of the Pole who reigned for 25,827 years-a scientific fact.
Anyone who can write Symbolic Chinese, can, even at the present day, travel all through China, Japan, Chinese Tartary, Siam, Java, Corea, in fact, throughout the whole of Eastern Asia, and with this symbolic language, make himself perfectly understood although he may not be able to speak a syllable of any of the languages of these countries.
Sir C. Alabaster, who was a great Masonic student and had much insight into China, says:- "Going back to the earliest historic times in China I find a clear evidence of the existence of a mystic faith, expressed in allegorical form and illustrated, as with us, by symbols. The secrets of this faith were orally transmitted, the chiefs alone pretending to have full knowledge of them. I find, moreover, that in these earliest ages, this faith took a Masonic form, their secrets being recorded in symbolic buildings, like the tabernacle Moses put up in the desert and the temple, his successor, Solomon, built at Jerusalem; that the various offices in the hierarchy of this religion were distinguished by the symbolic jewels, held by them during their term of office, and that, as with us, at the rites of their religion they wore leather aprons, such as have come down to us, marked with the insignia of their rank. The compasses and square, used as the symbol of right conduct. The man who had the compasses and square and regulated his life thereby, being then, as now, considered to possess the secrets and to carry out the principles of true propriety." We find one of the most ancient names by which the Deity is spoken of in China is that of "The First Builder" or, as Masons say, "The Great Architect of the Universe." The original from which these sprang was the Egyptian PTAH, who built the heavens with his seven assistants, but at the present time the mysteries of this ancient faith in China have become lost or obscured, though attempts at a revival may be traced in the proceedings of existing brotherhoods, whose various rituals and signs are supposed to be, in some measure, founded on ancient rites and symbols, which have been handed down from earliest ages. Here  we see the degeneration that has crept in and gradually contaminated, debased and obliterated the true Masonic rites and ceremonies which their forefathers carried with them out of Egypt and established in this country.
The Ainus,(l) the aboriginals of Japan, "the hairy men," are a very old people, and came out of Egypt in the earlier time of their Stellar Mythos, as their name implies- "The Children of the Bear," the children who went out of Egypt at the time that they first made out in their Astronomical Mythos that the seven pole stars circulated round the Pole Star, that is-Seven Glorious Ones-the Seven Lights. Probably these people first inhabited Persia, India, China and Asia generally, but were driven out farther and farther east by a superior race, which took their place from the centre, until now we only find the remnant of the original in the Far East, north of Japan and Northern Asia. They still practise some of the earliest Astronomical Mythological rites amongst themselves, having the Bear as their "first" Totem.
The Ainu say that their forefathers drove out and exterminated with clubs a race of dwarfs who were there before them; they say that these dwarfs were only three or four feet high.(2) They describe them as being of a red colour and having very long arms in proportion to the rest of the body, and that they used flat stone knives, scrapers, and other implements of stone.
These Ainu are of the same original race and type as the Australian Aborigines, and the story of Abydos and their beliefsi.e. future state-correspond with the ritual of ancient Egypt. They are not really Polytheistic and do not believe in the existence of gods innumerable, as has been stated by some writers. The so-called different gods are names only of the various attributes of the One Great God. Their skulls are of the same shape and average capacity as the Australians and Nilotic negroes.
The fact that the name Ainu is found on the stone of black diorite, containing the Code of Hammurabi, at Susa, may have some connection with these ancient people. My Stanley Cook, like a good many others, is in doubt as to the origin of this Code and from whence it was originally derived. His able
(1 Probably these Ainu came from that domain of Egypt which Maspero calls the "Haunch," opposite Aunu, the "Haunch" here representing the Great Bear. It is situated to the N. of Memphis and Pyramids of Gizeh, and W. of the Nile.)
(2 Recently some of them have been found living amongst the mountains in China.)
 arguments leave it an open question, but the more one studies it the greater is the conviction that it was originally Egyptian and brought from there. Assyriologists generally agree that the dynasty, to which Hammurabi belonged, was associated with immigration, and if we take it as pretty well proved by the various words, the origin of which is Egyptian and not Arabian, except as "carriers" of the same, we can understand why there is such a close resemblance of "The Laws of Moses" to this Code. Moses lived about 1000 years after this Code was engraved on this stone, but he was one of the High Priests of "On" and well versed in all laws and doctrines both of Amen Ra and Osiris, and he no doubt made use of as much or as little of their laws, or modified them, as circumstances required when he left Egypt with his followers. We must remember that after the ancient Egyptian language died out Aramaic intervened before the earlier Coptic, Moabite or Biblical Hebrew. Iau is In of the Egyptians, and Yahu is certainly an earlier form than Yahwe. In dates at least 6000 years B.C., as can be seen on Egyptian Papyri in the British Museum, and abandoned later on. Iu was the same as Tmu, the son of Ptah, and lu is therefore the son of Ptah. It was written later by the Phoenicians in Greek, Hebrew, etc., in various forms, such as Iau, Iahu, Ias and after as Yau and Yahu, Y being of much later date than I, and we have no hesitation in stating that the Iau here referred to-and of still later date as the Chinese Y--is the same as lu in the original, and that all these laws of Hammurabi were those which had been in use in Egypt thousands of years before the existence of Hammurabi.
South Arabian and Phoenician were simply copies of the Egyptian. Erman states that the administration of justice was centralised under the old empire. The old empire, from recent discoveries, dated at least 10,000 years ago, probably much longer, and until those who are studying this subject recognise the facts that have been brought to light by discoveries in recent years, they will always be falling into a pit which they cannot get out of, for words and names can be traced to the Egyptians long before the name of Moses, although it is more than probable that, as he was a learned High Priest, he made use of this code for the Israelites. As stated before, the Chaldees were from Egypt originally, and obtained their learning from there centuries before the existence of Israelites in Asia.
 Seven Footsteps of Buddha denote the seven steps in precession which are a co-type, equivalent to the seven stations of the pole, and a footprint on each peak is the symbol of a station in precession. Thus, the footprint of Buddha upon Adam's Peak in Ceylon shows that this was one of the seven annular Mountains in its sevenfold system of Mount Meru.
The two feet, as found on rocks and in caves in Australia. From Prof. Speucer and Gilleu's "Native Tribes of Central Australia," published by Macmillan & Co. - by permission, with our thanks, and two feet in Mexico and amongst the Zapotecs. See pictures of the Rock Drawings of the Australians and Humboldt Fragment of the Mexicans (pages 66 and 114).
The two soles of the feet of Buddha, here shown, held as sacred by the Buddhists, represent the soles of the feet of Osiris. Osiris was stated to have been mutilated into fourteen partssome versions give sixteen-viz. his head, the soles of his feet, his bones, his arms, his heart, his interior, his tongue, his eyes, his fists, his fingers, his back, his ears, his body, etc., and these were buried in different parts of Egypt. In the Ritual we are told "that the soles of the feet, which had trodden the earth, were removed in order that Osiris might tread the Hall of Judgment with pure feet, and that his feet were bathed with milk that the baize thereof might be assuaged, etc.": and we find one or more representations of these parts held sacred in many lands, which probably date further back than the time of Osiris, in fact, to Horus I. Amongst the Australian natives we find these soles of the feet shown upon various rocks and cave-walls, where they are regarded  as "sacred," although you cannot obtain any information about them except that "they have always been," which is as far as the natives can tell you: also on the rock drawings from the sculptured stones from Dolmens in Brittany, which we show here from Professor G. Sergi's "The Mediterranean Race," page 313, fig. 93 They are also shown at Palenque and several other places in Central America. They are all identically the same, and it is only by going back to the Stellar Mythos of old Egypt that you can discover the true meaning and origin. These two feet are well shown in the vignette, plate ii. of "The Book of the Dead," which refers to chap. xvii.: "I have come upon earth and with my two feet have taken possession. I am Tmu, and I come from my own place." These soles of the feet were therefore considered sacred objects, and as we find them shown on the Dolmens of Brittany, the rock-drawings of the Australian Aborigines, at Palenque in Central America and in the HUMBOLDT FRAGMENT. They must date back to the Stellar Mythos, and first and primarily refer to Horus I, although they were afterwards brought on in the Solar doctrines and then refer to Osiris, as we see from the Buddhist records. Then we have the parallel in the Christian doctrines, being washed, bathed in RA°, etc. Another proof that it was originally Horus is found in the great Harris Papyrus, 15-3, when the God Ra-Tem-Neberter is restored to his first condition, after having been dismembered and cut to pieces; "he is then the God who is the possessor of completeness, integrity, hence inviolate." Most Egyptologists have ascribed the name to Osiris, but it was Horus I. primarily, and the above name, Ra-Tem, shows the transformation from Horus to Osiris--Tmu was another name for Hours, and Ra was Osiris in spirit.
There is a tradition amongst the North American Indians that all the tribes were formerly one and dwelt together, and their tradition is that they came across a large water towards the East or sunrise. They crossed the water in canoes, but they know not how long they were in crossing, nor whether the water was salt or fresh. The Dakotes possess legends of "huge skiffs," in which the Dakotes of old floated for weeks, finally gaining dry landa tradition of ships and a long sea voyage. Their language was the same as the Welsh. We have here two different traditions, one leading to the supposition that they came via Japan, and the other via the British Isles, Greenland, etc. If we take the  anatomical conditions, as far as we can find, all our ethnological studies prove that first the inhabitants of Copan, Palenque, and still many tribes in South America and Western North America, deformed their skulls, had squat figures, coarse features, large noses, thick lips; or were short-statured individuals with round heads, oval faces, high cheek bones, flat noses, large mouths, small oblong eyes types of the Tartar or Manchurian. All these had, and those that still remain have, the Stellar Mythos only. In the Mayas we find regular features, good-looking small figures, with well-proportioned limbs, finely-formed heads, high foreheads, well-framed noses and small mouths with firm lips.
Eyes, open, straight and intelligent. These we see depicted on sculptured frescoes, etc., and amongst the Incas. All these had the Solar Mythos; but there is a very clear line of demarcation between these people and some earlier races. From the ethnological conditions found, and their practice of the Stellar doctrines, one can trace the early exodus through Asia to Australia, New Guinea, Japan, all Northern Asia, across to North America, and also from North Europe to Greenland, and across to America by way of the North there. We give here a drawing from a stuccorelief found in a temple at Palenque, Central America,(1) which shows that these people also wore the "Horns Lock" of the Egyptians. Amongst their carvings we find representations of the Elephant and Lion, animals which did notexist in America.
Solar Mythos, and the exodus that followed, one traces
(1 The Tablet of the Cross Palenque is the Mexican representation of the Egyptian Ritual of Raising the Tatt Cross and the birth of Horus from the Great Mother-Mut. It is not a great sacrificial scene as Professor Forstemann states. The Divine Babe who maketh his appearance in Chemunnu, the place of the 8 gods, the Babe of "the God of longstrides" (Ra), of the God "of Lion form" (Shu), of the Goddess Bast, of Nefer-Tmu, of the Striker (Ahi, a name of Horus), and of Nehebkan and others (see Ritual). In the centre is the Tatt Cross or their representative, surmounted by a Zootype of the Great Mother, who is giving a New-Heart, or Soul, to the child held aloft by the figure on the right, with the emblem of a new-birth in his left hand. As the Ritual states-the divine Babe was lifted up into the upper world by two divinities (see Ritual, chap. cxxv.),(1) here represented. The decipherment of the whole of this important Tablet is reserved for another book.
(1 Mariett's "Monuments Divers," plate 46, gives a fine picture of this.))
 through Europe, Persia, India, China, and part of Japan, where it ceased. The Mayas probably came across direct from Egypt or North Africa and spread South to a certain extent, and to a smaller extent to the North and West, because to the North and West we see how far the Solar Mythos was carried, comparatively no great distance. This is proved by the fact that the Mayas had the Solar doctrines and had absorbed into them part of the Stellar: the countries bordering to the North and West had a little of both, but more Stellar than Solar, and then, still farther away, only the Stellar: therefore the Solar did not come to America via Asia, but via Africa or Europe.
This will clearly prove that all these people at one time had a common ancestry, whose writing was symbolic and whose language was of the hieroglyphic type. It also proves that Max Muller's theory of "Roots" is wrong. Throughout all Eastern Asia, however much the dialects and syllabic or oral sounds and spoken language may differ, the written symbolic language is understood by all.
Their Eschatology was pure original so-called Monotheism, which corresponds in all ideas, forms, ceremonies, symbolisms, etc., to those in use amongst the ancient Egyptians.
The followers of the messenger (Sinphos) in Assam preserve traditions of their forefathers, which connect them with the earliest ages. They are divided into twelve tribes, in commemoration of the twelve Elders (twelve signs of the Zodiac), and worship one Supreme Being. In Ceylon we find that the Buddhists have the same belief.
The tribes of North America are divided into Totemic divisions, and the Crow tribe has two interesting "signs" tokens of friendship and brotherhood, and, if given and answered by strangers, you are a "safe brother" amongst them, which is important to those brothers of the 18°.
1. In crossing their arms on the breast
2. In raising the R H to the side of the H, with the I F pointing to the Great Spirit, and then reversing H A and H D.
As we have shown by photographs from Mexico and Central America, this sign was a "sacred sign," used there during the Stellar Mythos, because we find it depicted here before the Solar arrived, and in some ruined cities that the Solar doctrines never reached; at least, there is no evidence of its having done so (see  "Mexican Notes"). These signs are plainly shown in many of the Vignettes of the Egyptian " Book of the Dead " and connected with the Ritual of their Sacred Ceremonies. Another important point to prove that these people came from Egypt during very
early times (Stellar Mythos) is that of the oldest tribes knownone has the tortoise for their totem (the oldest) and another the Swastica, as may be seen from the photograph taken from a drawing in "their camp" many years ago. This is the "Swastica Totem," and is made up of the Swastica above two circles, with another Swastica and a Disk in the centre. This Disk  represents "Aten" and was an ancient form of Her-Mahu (Horus) god of the double horizon in Egypt. It was not a worship of Solardeity, but was an emblem of the circle made by Aten as the god of the double horizons, lifted up or made by Shu. From recent inquiries we have made, we are given to understand that this tribe has "died out," and that very few, if any, of the Indians belonging to it exist at the present day.
The same custom found amongst the Jews and Hindoos (as in Egypt) for a man to raise up seed for the deceased brother by marrying his widow, was found amongst the Central American nations : also, none but the High Priests might enter the Holy of Holies. All ate the flesh of the sacrifices of atonement (analogous, see 18°), and poured the blood of the sacrifice on the earth; they sprinkled it, they marked persons with it, they smeared it upon the walls and stones (brought on from the Totemic ceremonies, see description of same in Spencer and Gillen's books). All their temples faced the East, showing that they had passed the Stellar Mythos. They all had the ark as a portable temple, and all held it in the highest veneration. It was thought too sacred to be touched except by the Priests: all offered water to a stranger that he might wash his feet, used dust as a token of humility, anointed with oil sacrificed prisoners and hung up their headsand the Lord said unto Moses:- "Take all the heads of the people and hang them up before the Lord against the Sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel." And Moses said unto the judges of Israel:- "Slay ye every one of his men that were joined unto Baal-peor" (Numb. xxv. 4-5). And they all practised baptism, as is proved by the following:- "Then the Mexican midwife gave the child to taste of the water, putting her moistened finger into its mouth and said: 'Take this: by this thou hast to live on the earth, to grow and to flourish; through this we get all things that support existence on the earth; receive it.' Then with moistened fingers she touched the breast of the child and said 'Behold the pure water that washes and cleanses thy heart, that removes all filthiness; receive it; may the goddess see good to purify and cleanse thy heart.' Then the midwife poured water upon the head of the child, saying: 'O my grandson, my son, take this water of the Lord of the world, which is thy life, invigorating and refreshing, washing and cleansing. I pray  that this celestial water, blue and light blue, may enter into thy body and there live. I pray that it may destroy in thee and put away from thee all things evil and adverse that were given thee before the beginning o f the world. Wheresoever thou art in this child, 0 thou hurtful thing, begone ! leave it, put thyself apart for now does it live anew and anew is it born, now again is it purified and cleansed: now again is it shapened and engendered by our mother the goddess of water'" (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. iii. page 372). Here we find many resemblances to the Christian ordinance of baptism; the pouring of water on the head, the putting of the fingers into the mouth, the touching of the breast, the new birth and the washing away of the original sin-all part of the Ritual of Egypt referring to the passage of the manes in Amenta.
The Christian rite, we know, was not a Christian idea, but was borrowed from ancient times. The original name for the goddess of water was Nut, afterwards she became Isis. Isis and Horus were the mother and divine child, the divine healer, and the Romans brought them with them to Rome and they were worshipped there by the Romans, the Roman women more especially. Anyone going to Italy now may see many of these figures in black basalt, which were brought there from Egypt. On this the Roman Catholic religion was founded, and that is the reason why the Virgin Mary (Isis brought on in the Christian doctrines) has so much adoration paid to her. The Roman Catholics did not have the Father at first, who was brought on by the Jews, and thus we see that the Eschatology of the Solar was practised by all when Solar Mythos had perished. All these customs, etc., were the same in N. and S. America, Europe, India and some other parts of Asia. The primordial came from Egypt.
We have made some remarks on the origin of language to show how, in all probability, our present use of signs and symbols has originated, and how these have been handed down from generation to generation, time and circumstances modifying the original to the present interpretation.
Tracing the origin of the ancient Egyptians from the origin of language, Gerald Massey (1) says that " concerning the origin of
(1 "Natural Genesis.")
 language very little is known and hitherto nothing absolutely established. All theories on the subject are chiefly negative. The 'science' has been founded and its 'origins' have been discussed without the ideographic symbols and the gesture-signs being even taken into account. These must take their root from Inner Africa and not, as the Aryanists have laboured to show, in Asia."
The Inner African languages prove that words had earlier forms than those which have become the "roots" of the Aryanist. There is no way of getting back to an origin of words except by learning once more to think in things, images, ideographs, hieroglyphics and gesture-signs; and the primary modes of expression must be sought in their birthplace, for in Africa only shall we find the earliest rudimentary articulation of human sounds which accompanied gesture-signs and preceded verbal speech. The clicks, the formation of words by the duplication of sounds and all original types of expression must be allowed to have been evolved in Africa until it can be shown how they came otherwise.
Gesture-signs and ideographic symbols alone preserve the early language in visible figures, and we are unable to get to the roots of all that have been pictured, printed or written, until we can decipher the figures made primarily by the early man. The latest forms of these have to be traced back to the most primary before we can get to know anything of the origins. These are the true radicals of language, without which the philologist has no final and adequate determinative; and yet these have been left hitherto outside the range of discussion by the Aryan school. But the doctrine is prevalent in current philology, whilst the earlier sign-language has been ignored altogether.
Whenever the ideographic signs of the oldest civilised nations can be compared, evidence of the original unity becomes apparent, and if we take the earliest inhabitants of any part of the world, we find from the skeletons that these were all of the same classNegroid, just as we find in gesture-language that the further we go back the nearer is our approach towards some central unity.
The "Origin of Language" itself is not a problem to be attacked and solved by the philosophical speculator. To know anything with certitude we must go back the way we came, along the track that only the evolution is free to pursue and explore. We know now that the dumb think, and that man had a  gesture-language when he was otherwise dumb. And in common with the lower animals he still uses inarticulate cries to express his meaning, aided by gestures and the movements of the muscles of the face.
Speculation, without the primary data, cannot establish anything, but when we have the data we find that development was, from the very first, in accordance with the laws of evolution, and that there was but one beginning for language, mythology and symbolism, however numerous their intermediate forms or widely scattered the nearest links.
Fortunately, Nature is very careful, and a type once evolved is never entirely lost, nor altogether effaced, but unity of origin in language was only possible when the human intelligence was too limited to disagree and diverge, and the race a mental herd making the same signs and sounds for ages and ages without choice in the matter or desire to differ.
Be it noted that at the present time there are many signs, used with the hands and fingers, both by deaf and dumb people and aborigines when at a distance from each other. Roth, in his book, gives 213 such signs to communicate their wishes or thoughts. A good example is that used by our navy and army. Many a time have we watched with interest our bluejackets, leaning over the side of a man-of-war talking to another, perhaps 500 yards off, only with his hands and fingers, after the order has been given to "cease signalling." In one case the bluejackets and soldiers, deaf and dumb, use an alphabet, and in the other, the native, being ignorant of alphabets, uses the signs with his fingers, showed to imply sentences which have been prearranged and stand in the same sense as the alphabet to him.
Thus we see that the primary forms of language, so to speak, signs, symbols, ideographs, etc., were first written as a visible means of expressing articulate sounds. This hieroglyphic language became afterwards a secret language, known and carried on from generation to generation, with secret meanings, the interpretation of which at the present day, as of old, is only known to those who have worked and passed through the necessary examination to enable them to obtain that knowledge. But, inasmuch as we find the same hieroglyphics, signs, symbols, etc., in various parts of the world, also that the earliest race of beings were Negroid, it is but natural to believe that at one time these were universal, and that their birthplace must have had one  common centre, which must have been Africa. Throughout the whole world, where the ossified remains of earliest man have been found, we find the same type, which is Negroid. This is proved by the shape of the bones, the flattened fibia, the shape of the skull, etc., and the long forearm with wide space between the two forearm bones (Ulna and Radius), the discussion of which would be outside this work. At the same time, for those interested in the argument, we would draw attention to Professor G. Sergi's work, "The Mediterranean Race," and to the various "finds" that have been well described by many able writers. These point to the conclusion that primitive man emanated from the continent of Africa, and could not have been evolved from anywhere else.
Of course much of the original meaning and interpretation has been lost and others substituted, still the true originals remain engraved on monuments and stones, because language, like a species, when once extinct, never reappears; the sane language never has two birthplaces. Distant languages may be crossed or blended together; we see variability in any tongue, and new words are frequently being "coined." But as there is a limited power to man's brain capacity for remembering single words, like whole languages, these gradually become extinct, although in the spelling of new words letters often remain as the rudiments of ancient forms of pronunciation, and dominant languages and dialects, naturally spread widely and gradually extinguish other tongues.
As far as possible, we only bring before our readers those facts and remnants of antiquity which still exist and which all can verify, pointing as they do that the conclusions we have arrived at, and which every earnest student can prove for himself, are not "visionary" but are existing facts.
Whilst candidly admitting that there still remain many broken links, we contend that in the chain of evidence which we have helped to forge there is more than sufficient to prove to all students and thinkers the truth of what we advance; at all events the fact that we find the same signs, symbols, doctrines, etc., practised throughout various parts of this world would lead us to conclude that they all had one common origin, and all our research proves that in Egypt was the birthplace and nowhere else can it be found. In using the term "in Egypt" we include the Nile valley and its sources.
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